542 PUTNAM COUNTY.
is hilly; but, with a few exceptions, the hills are arable to their summits. The principal streams
are the e. branch of Croton River and its tributaries, Quaker, Birch, and Muddy Brooks. Croton
Lake is in the w. and Little Pond in the e. part. “ The Great Swamp” extends along the e.
branch of Croton River.1 The soil is a sandy loam. Patterson, (p. v.,) a station on the Harlem
R. R., contains 2 churches and 37 houses. Towners Station (Towners p. o.) and Haviland
Hollow (p. o.) are hamlets. The Prot. E. Chiirch at Patterson was built in 1770. There are
4 churches in town.2
PMIilPSTOWJV3—was formed March 7,1788. A part of Fishkill (Dutchess co.) was taken
off in 1806, and Putnam Yalley in 1839. It is the most westerly town of the. co., and extends about
10 mi. along the Hudson. Its surface is broken by numerous steep and rocky mountain ridges
separated by deep and narrow valleys.4 These mountains constitute the most elevated portion
of The Highlands.5 The ranges have a general n. and s. or n. e. and s. w. direction. Clove
Creek flows through the N. part of the town, and Canopus Creek through the n. e. corner.
Foundry, Breakneck, Andreas, Indian, and other brooks flow through narrow valleys and rocky
ravines into the Hudson. The greater part of the surface is unfit for agricultural purposes.
Constitution Island6 is a promontory opposite West Point, connected with the mainland by a
marshy meadow.' The “ Sunk Lot” is a tract of 1300 acres of low and apparently sunken ground.
Several mines of magnetic iron ore had been opened in town; but none are now wrought. Granite
is extensively quarried, and brick are made at several points along the river. The soil is a gravelly,
sandy, and clayey loam. Coldspring', (p. v.,) situated on the Hudson, was incorp. April 22,
1846, and includes the suburban villages of Nelsonville and Marysville. It is a station on the
Hudson River R. R., and contains 6 churches and an extensive foundery.3 Pop. 2,237. Break¬
neck and Griffins Corners contain each about a dozen houses. Davenport Corners
contains 1 church and 10 houses. Continental Village8 has 1 church and about 12 houses.
Garrisons, (p. o.,) on the Hudson, is a station on the Hudson River R. R. The first settlement
was made about 1715, by Thos. Davenport.9 This town was principally settled under Col. Beverly
Robinson,4 who acquired title by marriage with. Susannah, daughter of Frederick Philipse.
Undercliff, the residence of Gen. Geo. P. Morris, is situated on a high bluff in the n. part of Cold
Spring. The census reports 9 churches in town.11
PUTNAM VAI7LEIT—was formed from Philipstown, as “ Quincy,” March 14, 1839. Its
7 The West Point Foundery is one of the largest establishments
of the kind in the country. It was established in 1817, by an
association organized for that purpose. A tract of 150 acres
was purchased of Frederick Philipse, and a moulding house,
boring mili, blacksmith and pattern shops, and drafting and
business offices, were erected. An act of incorporation was ob¬
tained, April 15, 1818; and in 1839 the finishing or machine,
smiths’ and boiler departments of the establishment were brought
from New York. The works now consist of a moulding house,
with 3 cupola furnaces; a gun foundery, with 3 air furnaces; 2
boring mills,—-one driven by an overshot water wheel and the
other by a steam engine; 3 blacksmith shops; a turning shop;
a finishing shop, with a pattern shop on the second floor; a boiler
shop, a punching machine house, 5 pattern houses, a fire engine
house, an office, and several smaller buildings. A dock on the
river belongs to these works, and a branch from the R. r. extends
to them. From 400 to 600 men are employed. Shafts 2 ft. in
diameter, and of 15 tons’ weight, have been forged here.
8 This village, together with barracks for 2000 men, was burned
in Oct. 1777, by a detachment of the enemy on their way up the
Hudson to co-operate with Gen. Burgoyne. Two small forts were
erected here during the Revolution, and traces of them are yet
9 Davenport built the first house at Coldspring, in 1715. David
Hurtis, and several families named Haight, Bloomer, and Wilson,
settled in the town in 1730. John Meeks was the first settler at
Continental Village, and John Rogers settled a little n. of the
same place aboutl730. Jas. Stanley settled in the town inl750,
and Thos. Sarles in 1756. The first gristmill was built about 17 62,
by Beverly Robinson, at Continental Village.
10 Col; Robinson’s house, situated at the foot of Sugar Loaf Mt.,
was the headquarters of Gens. Putnam and Parsons in 1778-79,
and of Gen. Arnold at the time of his treason. The building is
still standing, and is owned by Richard D. Arden, by whom it is
carefully preserved in its original character. Col. Robinson
granted a glebe to St. Philip’s Church in The Highlands, 1 mi.
e. of Garrisons, which was confirmed by the act of March 27,
1794. The church was used as a barrack during the Revo¬
lution.—Blake’s Hist. Putnam Co. pp. 180-209; Sabine’s LoyalV
ists, p. 562.
H 4 M. E., 2 Prot. E., Bap., Presb. and R. 0.
Pine Island is a rocky ledge 200 ft. high, containing abont
SO acres, in the middle of Great Swamp.
Prot. E., Bap., Friends, and Presb.
above the Hudson, and Sugar Loaf 800 ft.
Timothy Pickering, appointed to have charge of this work, in
March, 1778, contracted with Peter Townsend (at the Sterling
Iron Works at Warwick, Orange co.) for the construction of the
chain. The task was done in 6 weeks, and the huge chain carted
in sections to West Point. The links weighed from 100 to 150
pounds each; and the entire weight was 186 tons, and its length
1,500 ft. It was buoyed up by large spars, a few feet apart,
secured by strong timbers framed into them and firmly at¬
tached to the rock on both shores. In winter it was drawn on
shore by a windlass, and replaced in the spring. It was never
disturbed by the enemy, and continued in use until the peace.
A similar chain, of half its diameter and 1,800 ft. in length,
(made at the Ringwood Iron Works, N.J.,) was stretched across
the channel from Anthonys Nose to Fort Montgomery, in Nov.
1776. It parted twice, and the enemy broke and passed it in
the fall of 1778. Another, stretched from Pollepels Island to
the w. shore, consisted of spars, pointed, and their ends united