546 QUEENS COUNTY.
FLUSHING1—was first granted by letters patent—issued by the Dutch Governor Keift, Oct.
10, 1645—to a company of English immigrants. 2 This grant was confirmed by Gov. Nicoll, Feb.
1666, and by Gov. Dongan, March 23, 1685. 3 Under the provisions of these charters a con¬
siderable amount of land was held in common, to he under the charge of 5 trustees, elected
annually. 4 It was recognized as a town under the State Government, March 7, 1788. 5 It lies upon
the N. border of the co., w. of the center. Its surface is moderately uneven and has a gentle
inclination to the n. A low range of hills extends along its s. border and separates it from
Jamaica. Flushing Creek, the principal stream, forms a portion of the w. boundary. The prinei
pal indentations upon the coast are Flushing Bay, Powells Cove, Little Bay, and Little Neck Bay
An extensive salt marsh extends along Flushing Creek and the head of Flushing Bay. 6 The soil
is a fine quality of productive sandy loam. Gardening, fruit growing, 7 and the nursery business8
constitute the leading pursuits of the people. The town supports its own poor, and has a house and
farm for their accommodation. Flushing, (P-v->) the head of Flushing Bay, was incorp.
April 9, 1813. It contains 8 churches, 2 newspaper offices, several private seminaries, 9 and has
a limited amount of manufactures. 10 It is connected with New York hy the Flushing R. R. and hy a
steam ferry from Hunters Point. From its proximity to New York, it has become the residence
of many wealthy persons doing business in the city. Pop. 3, 488. College Point, 11 (p. v., ) on
the sound, e. of Flushing Bay, is a modem village, settled mostly hy Germans. It contains 2
churches, and an immense manufactory of whalebone, India rubber, and ratan, giving employment
to 500 to 700 hands. Pop. 1, 150. Whitestone12 (p. v. ) is located on the sound, in the extreme
n. part of the toAn. It contains 2 churches, and an extensive tin and sheet ironware manufac¬
tory. 13 Pop. 630. Marathon, at the head of Little Neck Bay, is a small, straggling village
with one church. Several of the neighborhoods in this town are known hy distinct local names. 14
Wilkins Point has recently been purchased hy the U. S. Government for the site of a fort. 15
There are now 13 churches in town. 16 The first settlements were made by English, who probably
had first settled in Holland. They arrived at “ New Amsterdam? ’ in 1645. They were Non-conform¬
ists in religion, and settled on the Dutch dominions under the promise of entire religious free¬
dom. 17 But the Dutch soon commenced a series of persecutions that continued until the time
of the British conquest in 1664. Several French Protestant families found their way into this
town after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes; hut few of their descendants are now found.
The fruits introduced by these people are said to have given the first direction to the nursery
business for which this town is so celebrated. During the Revolution a British force was sta¬
HEMPSTEAD —was granted hy Gov. Keiffc to several English families, Nov. 14, 1644.
This patent was confirmed hy Gov. Nicoll, March 6, 1666, and hy Gov. Dongan, April 17, 1685.18
11 This place was formerly known as “Lawrences Neck.” Seve¬
ral farms have been laid out into village plats, each one taking
a distinct name. An Episcopal college was incorp. here in
1840; hut it has since been abandoned. The location of this in¬
stitution gave the name to %e village.
12 Named from a large boulder near the landing. The place
was first called “Cookie Hitt” and afterward “Clintonville.”
13 This establishment gives employment to 430 hands.
14 Bay Side—the seat of A. G. Mickle, Ex-Mayor of New
York—and Springville are near Little Neck Bay. Fresh.
Meadows, Ireland, and Spring Hill are localities
s. e. of Flushing Village. Iloclsy Hill and Union Place
are farming neighborhoods. Spring Hill was the residence of
Cadwallader Colden, who died here Sept. 20, 1776. His son
espoused the cause of the Royalists, and his estate was con¬
fiscated.—OnderdonPs Rev. Inc.
15 When fortified, this point will completely command the
channel on the N., and render the approach of ships of war
toward New York impossible from that direction.
16 Of these there are at Flushing, 2 Friends, Prot. E., M. E., Ret
Prot. D., R. C., Cong., and Bap.; at College Point, R.O. and Luth.;
at Whitestone, Prot. E. and M. E.; and at Marathon, a Prot. E.
17 The religious faith of these people was much the same as
that afterward professed by the Quakers, who had not become
at that period a distinct sect in England. Their first religious
teacher was Francis Doughty, from Taunton, Mass., a Baptist,
who became a Quaker in 1657, as did many of the inhabitants.
The celebrated Geo. Fox visited America in 1672 and preached
in this town. He was entertained at the house of John Bowne,
who had particularly suffered from the persecutions of the
Dutch; but, his dwelling not being sufficiently large to accom¬
modate the audience, his hearers assembled under the shade of
the venerable oaks, one of which is still standing. The Bowne
House stands in Parsons & Co.’s Commercial Garden and Nursery,
and is in a fine state of preservation.
1® The grantees named in the first patent were Robert Ford-
Named by the Dutch “Vlissengen,” from a place in Holland.
The first patentees were Thos. Farrington, John Lawrence,
John Hicks, John Townsend, Thos. Stiles, Robert Field, Thos.
Saul, John Marston, Thos. Applegate, Lawrence Dutch, Wm.
Lawrence, Henry Sawtell, Wm. Thorne, Michael Willard, Robt.
Firman, and Wm. Widgeon, for themselves and associates.
The patentees named in the patent of Gov. Nicoll were
John Lawrence, (alderman of New York City,) Richard Corn-
well, Chas. Bridges, Wm. Lawrence, Robert Terry, Wm. Noble,
John Forbush, Elias Doughty, Robt. Field, Philip Udall, Thos.
Stiles, Benj. Field, Wm. Pidgeon, John Adams, John Hinchman,
Nicholas Parcell, Tobias Peaks, and John Bowne; and those in
the patent of Gov. Dongan were Elias Doughty, Thos. Willett,
John Bowne, Matthias Harvey, Thos. Hicks, Richard Cornwell,
John Hinchman, Jonathan Wright, and SamT Hoyt.—Patents,
I, 64, V, 222, 325, Sec. Office.
* These lands have since been mostly taken up by individuals,
though the trustees are still elected to take charge of the re¬
mainder. The town records were burned, Oct. 31, 1797, by a
servant girl, who was afterward hung for the deed.
By the General Act, establishing towns.
8 A chalybeate spring was discovered near the head of this
marsh in 1816. It was named “Cheltenham, Springs,” and for a
time attracted much attention.
t The principal fruit grown are cherries, of which large quan¬
tities are annually sent to the NewYork market.
3 Flushing has a wide reputation for its nurseries, of which
there are six, occupying 246 acres and valued at $124,000. The
first nursery was commenced about 1750. They now furnish
every species of fruit tree, ornamental shrub, and exotic plant
cultivated in the country.
The principal of these schools are the Flushing Institute,
the Flushing Female College, and the Linnean Hill Seminary.
w The principal manufactories are the Excelsior Emery and
Band Paper Manufactory, a steam planing and saw mill, and a