ST. LAWRENCE COUNTY. 577
part of the co. Its surface is elevated and broken, and its soil is a moderately fertile, gravelly
loam. It is drained by the Oswegatchie and its branches. It is principally a wilderness, the set¬
tlements being confined to the n. part. Iron ore is found in town. Fine is a p. o. in the n. There
is no village in town. The first clearing was made in 1823, by Elias Teall.1
FOWLER 2—was formed from Rossie and Russell, April 15,1816. The townships of Edwards
and Eitz William (now a part of Hermon) were annexed from Russell in 1818. Edwards was
taken ofi' in 1827, a part of Hermon in 1830, and Pitcairn in 1836. It lies upon the Oswegatchie,
in -the southwesterly part of the co. Its surface is much broken by ridges of gneiss. It is
drained by the Oswegatchie and its branches. Silver Lake lies s. of the center of the town. The
soil along the streams is a fertile loam, in the n. w. a clayey loam, and in the e. a light sand.
Several valuable minerals are found in town.3 Hallesborougli, on the Oswegatchie, and
Eiittie Yorli (Eowler p.o.) are small villages. Fullerville (Eullerville Iron Works p.o.)
is the seat of an extensive manufactory of iron.4 West Fowler is a p. o. The first settle¬
ments were made by Brig. Gen. Haile, at Hailesborough, in 1807,? and by Sam’l B. Sprague, at
Little York, in 1811. The town did not begin to be settled rapidly until after 1820. The census
reports 4 churches in town.6
GOIJVERSEFR 7—was formed from Oswegatchie, April 5, 1810. A part of Macomb was
taken off in 1841. -It lies in the w. part of the co. Its surface is generally level, but somewhat
broken in the n. by low ridges of white limestone. It is drained by the Oswegatchie, which twice
flows across the town. The town‘abounds in interesting minerals.8 The soil is sandy'in a few
places, but is chiefly clay and loam, and is highly productive. The Kearney Iron Mine, in the s.
corner, has furnished an immense quantity of ore. Gonverneur (p.v.) was incorp. Dec. 7,
1847. Pop. 785. It is the seat of a flourishing academy,9 and has a considerable local trade and
the only p. oJin town. Riverside Cemetery is beautifully located on the opposite bank of the
Oswegatchie, e. of the village. It was consecrated June 23, 1858. It is a station upon the P. &
W. R. R. The first settlement was made in the summer of 1805, by Dr. Richard Townsend, agent
of Gouverneur Morris, the proprietor.10 The first church (Bap.) was formed in 1810.11
HAMMOID 12—was formed from Rossie and Morristown, March 30, 1827. A part was
annexed to Macomb in 1842, and a part to Rossie in 1844. It lies upon the St. Lawrence, in the
extreme w. part of the co., and includes a portion of The Thousand Islands. The surface is
generally level, but broken upOn its n. and s. borders by low primary ridges. A level terrace of
sandstone, forming a continuous and regular mural wall, extends from the s . shore of Black
Lake through the center of the town into Jefferson co. Black Brook flows thiough a stagnant
swamp, which borders upon this sandstone terrace. Its soil is generally a deep, fertile loam.
Hammond, (p-v.,) on the Rossie Plank Road; South Hammond, on the “ Old Mili¬
tary Road;” and Oali Point,13 (p.v.,) a landing on the St. Lawrence, are small villages.
Chippewa is a hamlet on a bay of the same name. Slight improvements began here in 1812;
but settlements did not increase until 1818-21, when a number of Scotch families located just w.
of the present site of Hammond Village.14 There are 4 churches in town.15
prietor. It embraces “ Scriba,” “ Sbonijkld,” “ Emilyville,” and
the south half of “ Sarahsburgh,” or Nos. 12, 14, 15, and 9 of
Great Tract No. Ill, Macomb’s Purchase.
1 Jas. C. Haile built a rude mill in 1828. The settlement was
soon after abandoned, but renewed in Feb. 1834, by Amasa J.
2 Named from Theodocius Fowler, of NewYork, former pro¬
prietor. It embraces “Killarney,” or No. 7 of Great Tract No.
Ill, Macomb’s Purchase.
3 Iron ore, white marble, sulphates of lead, copper, and zinc,
asbestus, Rensselaerite, mica, and chalcedony.
4 This village contains a furnace, 2 forges, and several mills.
5 Gen. II. purchased a mile square, with an agreement to build
a mill within a year. Among the other early settlers were Elijah
Sackett, Lemuel Arnold, John Kyan, and Ebenezer Parker. The
fii;st birth was a child of Merrills; the first marriage, that
of John Parker and Elizabeth S. Sackett, in 1812.
6 Univ., Bap., F. W. Bap., and M. E.
t Named from Gouverneur Morris, the proprietor of most of
the town. It originally embraced the township of “ Cambray,”
or No. 8 of the “ Ten Towns.”
8 Among the useful minerals are red specular iron ore, marble,
limpid calcite, sulphate of barytes, serpentine, Rensselaerite,
mica, tourmaline, and fluorspar- and among those interesting
to men of science are spinelle, scapolite, tremalite, schorl, sphene,
chondrodite, opatite, Babingtonite, and Houghite.
8 The “ Gouverneur High School” was opened in 1826, and incorp.
April 25,1828. A new edifice was erected in 1834; and in 1837
it was received under the patronage of the M. E. Black Biver
Conference. The building was burned in 1839, and a new stone
edifice erected the next year. The name was changed to the
Gouverneur Wesleyan Seminary April 25,1840. It is a flourish¬
10 The first party of settlers came through the wilderness from
the head of Lake George, guided by a compass. They were seven
days on the journey. Among the settlers in 1806 were Pardon
Babcock, Willard Smith, Eleazar Nichols, and Isaac Austin, who
all occupied a small shanty in common. In 1810 there were 50
families in town. A blockhouse was built in 1812, near where
the store of Harvey D. Smith now stands. Miss E. S. Sackett
taught the first school, in the first shanty; Israel Porter kept the
first inn, and John Brown the first store, in 1808. The first reli¬
gious services were held in 1806, by missionaries. The first child
born was Allen Smith; the first marriage, that of Medad Colo
and Miss Patterson; and the first death, that of Emily Porter.
11 There are 5 churches in town; 2 Cong., Univ., Bap., and M. E. ;
the last hold their meetings in the chapel of the academy.
12 Named from Abijah Hammond, of New York, proprietor. It ,
embraces the greater part of No. 1 of Great Tract No. Ill, Ma-'
18 Cross-over-Island Lighthouse was built just above this place
14 The first of these were John and Bavid Gregor, John Baird,
John and James Hill, and Peter Allen. A. Stimson taught the
first school, in 1818-19.
16 Presb., M. E., F. W. Bap., and Prot E.