SARATOGA COUNTY. 593
taken off in 1789, and Malta in 1802. It lies upon the Hudson, s. e. of the center of the co. It is
uneven in the s. and moderately hilly in the n. The highest point is about 250 feet above the
Hudson. A range of clay bluffs 60 to 100 feet high borders upon intervales of the Hudson and
Anthonys Kil. The streams are generally small brooks flowing in deep gullies worn in the drift
deposits.1 The n. w. corner borders upon Saratoga Lake. The river intervales are alluvial. West
of the river bluffs is a wide belt of heavy clay; and in the s. w. part is a sandy tract interspersed
with swamps. Upon the lake shore is a sulphur spring.2 Stillwater, (p. v.,) incorp. April 17,
1816, is situated on the Hudson. It contains 4 churches, and manufactories of lumber, paper,
woolens, and castings. Pop. 552. Meclianicsville, (p. v.,) incorp.-July 16,1859, situated on
the Hudson, at the mouth of Anthonys Kil, on the line of Half Moon, is a station on the Rensselaer
& Saratoga R. R. It contains 5 churches, a printing office, and an extensive linen thread manufac¬
tory.3 Pop. 1,111,—616 in Stillwater, 495 in Half Moon. Bemis Heigllts,1 (p.o.,) on the
Champlain Canal, near the Hudson, and KetchumsCorners (p.o.) are hamlets. This town
was included in'the Saratoga Patent of 1684; and settlement was commenced about 1750.5 The
first church (Cong.) was established in 1763.4 There are 8 churches in town.5
W A TIIBSFO It IE—was formed from Half Moon, April 17,1816. It lies at the junction of
the Hudson and Mohawk Rivers, in the s. e. corner of the co. Its area is about 7 sq. mi. Its
surface is mostly an upland, 50 to 100 feet above the river. The Mohawk is bordered by an almost
perpendicular range of slate bluffs, and the Hudson Yalley by a range of clay bluffs.' The soil is a
sandy, clayey, and alluvial loam of grSat fertility. The falls in the Mohawk furnish a valuable
water-power. Waterford,6 (p.v.,) incorp. April 6, 1801,7 situated on the Champlain Canal,
near the confluence of the Hudson8 and Mohawk Rivers, is a station on the Rensselaer &
Saratoga R. R. and the Albany & Northern R. R. It contains 6 churches, a newspaper office, a
bank, and several manufacturing establishments.12 Pop. 3,083. Settlement-was commenced by
the Dutch at a very early day. The census reports 7 churches in town.9 . • .
WILTOIV—was formed from Northumberland, April 20, 1818. It lies a little n. e. of the
center of the co. t The Palmertown Mts., with their steep, rocky slopes and broken, forest-covered
summits, extend across the n. w. corner. The center and s. w. are gently undulating, or broken Toy
low ridges. The principal streams are Snook Kil and Bog Meadow and Cold Brooks. The soil in
the e. and s. e, is a yellow, sandy loam resting on clay? and in some places swampy. At the foot
of the Palmertown Mts. is a belt of productive gravel and clay loam. A heavy growth of white
and yellow pine originally covered the plains, but little woodland now remains. Near Emersons
Corners is a spring of acidulous and carbonated water, and in the s. part of the town is a sulphur
spring. Wilton (p. v.) contains 20 houses; and Emersons Corners, in the n. part of the
town, is a hamlet. The first settlement was made in 1774 or ’75, by Rowland Perry and his sons
Samuel, John, Benj., Absalom, Roswell, Artemas, Rowland, and Joseph, from Dutchess co.10
Near the mill pond on Snook Kil are traces of Indian occupation; pestles, broken pottery, and flint
arrow heads have been found in abundance. The census reports 4 churches in town.11
Bancker was employed to lay it out into village lots. July 11,
1841, a destructive fire occurred, which destroyed 130 buildings.
w On the 25th of March, 1794, Hezekiah Ketchum, Jacobus
Van Schoonhoven, Matthew Gregory, Isaac Keeler, John Pettett,
Duncan Oliphant, and Thos. Smith were constituted trustees of
Half Moon Point.
u A bridge across the Hudson at this placfc was built in 1804,
at a cost of $50,000. The present structure, known as the
“Union Bridge,” was built in 1812, ’13, and ’14, at a cost of
12 A hydraulic canal i mi. in length was constructed in
1828-29, by J. E. King. Upon this canal are 2 stock and die
factories, a machine shop, ax factory, twine factory, ink and
lampblack factory, soap and candle factory, flouring mill, and
a pearling mill. On the Champlain Canal are 3 flouring mills,
a foundery and machine shop, an auger factory, and a distillery.
The fire engine works at this place were started in 1831. About
$60,000 worth of work is turned out per annum, and 40 men
13 Bap., Cong., M. E., Presb., Prot. E., Ref. Prot. D., and R. C.
it John Stiles, Ebenezer King, John Laing, Peter Johnson,
and Jas. and Wm. McGregor settled in town in 1775; and John
Boyce, Robt. Milligan, John Kendrick, and Enoch M. Place
in 1784. John Laing built the first sawmill, in 1784^85, and
Wm. McGregor the first gristmill, soonjafter the war. Stephen
King kept the first inn, and Ostrom the first store.
16 Bap., M. E., Prot. Meth., and Union.
Upon these streams are several fine cascades.
This spring is called the White Sulphur Spring. A few
years since, a hotel and bathing house were erected here, and a
small steamer was put upon the lake. The building was burned
2 or 3 years after, and the enterprise was abandoned.
8 The American Linen Thread Manufacturing Co. was organ¬
ized in 1852. The number of men employed is 125.
This church was organized at Litchfield, Conn., in 1752, and
in 1763 was removed to Stillwater. Rev. Robt. Campbell was
the first pastor.
1 3 M. E., 2 Bap., Presb., Prot. E., and R. C.
Half Moon Point; and the semi-circular tract between the Hud¬
son and the Mohawk was called Half Moon. Its present name
originated from the fact that at the village of Waterford a ford
8 In 1784 the site of the village was purchased by Col. Jacobus
Van Schoon, - Middlebrook, Ezra Hickock, Judge White,
and several others, most of whom were from Conn.; and Elores