Gazetteer of New York, 1860 & 1861 page 678
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The Hudson River forms the s. half of the w. border of the co. A rich intervale, from half s
mi. to a mi. in width, bordered by a series of clay bluffs 20 to 60 ft. high, extends along its course.
Most of the other streams of the co. are tributaries of the Hudson, and among them are the
Hoosick, Batten Kil, Moses and Fort Edward Creeks, and many smaller streams. Wood Creek
1 is
a deep, sluggish stream, flowing into Lake Champlain and draining the valley, which here extends
from the lake to the Hudson. The soil along the valley is mostly a hard, stiff clay. The Metto-
woe, or Pawlet, and the Poultney Rivers, from Yt., are tributaries of Wood Creek. In the co. are
several other streams important as mill streams
.2 Lake Champlain s. of Ticonderoga is scarcely
more than a ship canal through a reedy marsh bordered by rocky cliffs. Lake George lies along
the n. w. border of the co. Among the hills in the interior are several small lakes, the principal
of which is Cossayuna Lake, in Argyle


The various branches of agriculture form the leading pursuits of the people. The principal
grains raised are rye, spring wheat, oats, buckwheat, and corn. Peas, beans, flax, and potatoes
are also extensively cultivated. Stock raising, dairying, and wool growing are also extensively
pursued, The manufactures of the co. are principally along the Hudson and Batten Kil.

The county offices are divided among several towns. The courts are held alternately at Salem and
Sandy Hill, and the clerk’s office and co. poorhouse are located at Argyle
.1 The jail is connected
with the courthouse at Salem, and all prisoners sentenced for more than two months are sent to the
penitentiary at Albany.

The principal public works in the co. are the Champlain Canal,5 extending in and along Wood
Creek and the Hudson to Greenwich; the Saratoga & Whitehall R. R., extending through Fort
Edward, Kingsbury, Fort Ann, and Whitehall, with a branch to Lake Station and another to
Castleton, Yt.; and the Rutland & Washington R. R., extending from Eagle Bridge, through White
Creek, Jackson, and Salem, to the State line.

The first newspaper in this co. was established at Salem, in 1788.6

Upon the advent of the whites, few Indians were found within the limits of this co.; but Indian


Sandy Hill Center, green and street (W. T. Baker) .........280

Glens Falls Feeder, summit level    “      229

Champlain Canal    “    (Spafford)....................140

Hudson Kiver, Ft. Edward to Ft. Miller    “      110

above Saratoga Dam    “      92

Lake Champlain (various authorities)....................... 80to93

Lowest point on Hudson in Easton.............................. 75

Fort Edward    (B.    B,. Survey) .................. 143

Fort Ann    “      121

Comstocks Landing    “     ,............... 114

Whitehall Junction    “    ............................ 121

Lake Champlain    “      88.2

State Line    u      328

1 17. du Chicot, or “Biver of Logs,” of the French.

2 At Sandy Hill a dam 8 to 10 ft. high and 1200 ft. long crosses
the Hudson, the water setting hack to the foot of the rapids
below Glens Falls. At Fort Edward a dam 27 ft. high and 900
feet long was built by the State in 1821, as a feeder to the
canal, but, the Glens Falls feeder superseding it,    it    was    sold to

a company in 1840 and cut    down to 16 ft. The    Saratoga Dam

(where the Champlain Canal crosses the Hudson into Saratoga
co.) is 1390 feet long. Batten Kil is crossed by 9 dams. White
Creek furnishes a large number of mill sites, once improved, but
now mostly abandoned. Black Creek has several valuable and
improved mill sites. Mettowee or Pawlet Biver has also several
valuable mill sites.

8 The following estimates are taken from Dr. Fitch’s Ag. Sur¬
vey of Wash. Co.:—


Surface of Lake Champlain    (within the co.)................. 6,400

of Hudspn Biver          1.560

Kingsbury Swamp................................ '............ 9,600

Aggregate amount covered by water or marshes........... 27,229

“    “    “ by roads............................ 8,200

“    “    unimproved private lands............... 188,052

“    “    lands in cultivation.........................310,760

* The first co. officers under the State Government were Wm.
First Judge; Ebenezer Clarke, (7o. Cleric; John Thomas,
Sheriff; and Bichard Hatfield, Surrogate.

6 The channel of the Hudson was first used from Saratoga
Dam to Fort Edward, except a short canal with locks around
the falls at Fort Miller. The summit level is fed by the Glens
Falls navigable feeder.

6 The Times. It was published by Mr, Gerrish; and in 1795
it was changed to
The Washington Patriot. From 1810 to 1818 it bore the name of
The Northern Post, and was published successively by Dodd &
Bumsey and Dodd
& Stevenson. About 1827 it ap¬
peared as

The Co. Post and North Star; and in 1840 as
Tlie Washington Co. Post, It is now-published at
North White Creek by B. K. Crocker.

The Washington Begister was started at Salem in 1802 by John
P. Beynolds, and continued several years.

The Salem Messenger \yas commenced about 1819.

The Salem Press was issued May 21,1850, by W. B. Harkness,
and is still continued.

TheWhitehall Emporium was published froml822 until about 1828.

The Whitehall Bepublican-was published in 1832 by J. K. Averill.

Tlie Whitehall Chronicle was started in June, 1840,
and is now published by H. D. Morris.

The Whitehall Democrat was founded in 1845, and
is now published by H. Dudley and J. B. Wilkins.

The Whitehall Telegraph (tri-w.) was commenced in 1847, and
continued a short time.

The Whitehaller was published by W. S. Southmaid in 1849.

The American Sentinel was established in June, 1855,
by John E. Watkins.

The Sandy Hill Herald was started in 1824, and is
now published by E. D. Baker.

The Sun was published at Sandy Hill in 1826 by A. Emmons.

The Free Press was issued by the same publisher in 1832.

The Independent Politician was published at Sandy Hill in 1832
by C. Y. Haynes & Co.

The Temperance Advocate was published by S. P. Hines.

The Anti-Masonic Champion was started at Union Village by L.
Dewey in 1829. In 1830 Mills
& Lansing became pro-
■ prietors. In 1831 it was changed to

The Banner, published by W. Lansing & Co. In 1832 it was
published by Lansing & Wilmarth, and from 1833-36
by W. Lansing, and then merged.into

The Washington Sentinel Union Village Free Press.

The Union Village Courant was published in 1836.

The Union Village Democrat was started in 1839 by John W.
Lawton, 'and in 1841 John C. Osborn, became the pub¬
lisher. In 1842 he was succeeded by Joseph Holmes,
by whom it was styled

The Democratic Champion, and continued until 1846.

The W. Co. People’s Journal was founded in 1843 by
John W. Curtis, by whom it is still published.

The Championvi&e started at UnionVillage inl843by J. Holmes.

The Eagle was started by J. L. Cramer in 1845. In 1846 it became

The Union Village Eagle, and was published about 2 years by
McCall & Bailey.

The Union Village Democratic Standard was published in 1849
by Wm. A, McCall.

The Washington Telegraph was established in 1849, and is now
published by C. M. Haven, as

The Granville Register.

The Public Ledger, started at Fort Edward in 1854 by H. F
Blanchard, is now called the

Port Edward hedger.

The Port Edward Institute Monthly was started
. in 1856 by Wm. A. Holley, and is still published.


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