WASHINGTON COUNTY. 679
trails and implements of Indian art frequently found show that it had been inhabited at a former
period. The n. portion of the co., lying in the natural channel of communication between Hudson
River and Lake Champlain,1 became the great highway of hostile parties passing between the
Five Nations and the Canada Indians, and at a later day by the more formidable armies of disci¬
plined troops in the struggles which ended in the conquest of Canada. The French made incur¬
sions upon the English and Five Nations in 1665, 1688, and 1693; and these were returned by
attacks upon the French and Indians in Canada in 1691 and 1692. For several years after, the
passage of small hostile parties was of frequent occurrence. In 1709, Forts Ann and Nicholson
were erected by the English and garrisoned for the protection of the northern frontier; but
upon the return of peace they were abandoned.2 Frequent incursions of small parties were made
in the War of 1748, and many persons were murdered,—though no regular engagement took place.
Again, during the French War of 1755, forts were built at Ft. Ann, Ft. Edward, and the whole
region around the head of Lakes George and Champlain became the theater of stirring military
events. The armies that attacked Ticonderoga, and those that finally eifected the conquest of all
the French posts upon the lakes, marched through this region; and it formed a portion of the great
battle-ground between the armies of two nations contending for the sovereignty of a continent. In
the summer and fall of 1777, upon the advance of Burgoyne, war again, for a brief space, spread
terror and'desolation over the whole region “ Skenesborough” was burned and abandoned on the
7th of July, Fort Ann was taken on the 8th, Fort Edward on the 28th, and the country was over¬
run by the enemy soon after. On the 13th and 14th of Sept. the British army crossed the Hudson
into Saratoga co.; and about the 10th of Oct. Fort Edward was re-taken by the Americans, thus
effectually cutting off the retreat of the army, already disheartened by their defeat at Bemis
Heights. The surrender of Burgoyne put an end to the war in this section; and the subsequent
history of the co. is but the record of the continued and progressive triumphs of peaceful industry.
ARCTLE3—was granted by patent, March 13,1764,4 and formed as a town, March 23, 1786.
Greenwich was taken off in 1803, and Fort Edward in 1818. It lies near the center of the co. Its
surface is rolling in the n-. and w. and broken and hilly in the s. and e. The highlands are divided
into broad ridges with abrupt declivities. In the N. part Tamerack Swamp covers several hundred
acres. The principal stream is the Moses Kil,5 which flows in a s. w. direction through near tlie
center of the town. The other streams are small brooks, which flow into the Hudson, Batten Kil,
and Wood Creek. Cossayuna Lake6 is a beautiful sheet of water, 3 mi. long, situated in a narrow
valley in the s. e. part of the town. It is everywhere surrounded by steep hill slopes, and contains
several beautiful green islands. To the n. e. of this lake, high up among the hills, is Argyle Lake,7
a small sheet of water, half a mile in circumference. The soil of the town ts generally a pro¬
ductive, slaty or gravelly loam. A mineral spring, 1 mi. n. w. from South Argyle, is said to re¬
semble those at Saratoga. Argyle (p.v.) was incorp. March 27, 1838i It is the seat of the
Argyle Academy. Pop. 375. forth Argyle and South Argyle (p. offices) each contains
about 20 houses, and The Hook 10. Argyle was conveyed to 83 families, and in 1765 the first
settlement commenced.8 The family of John Allen, a tory living on Lot 25, was murdered by
Indians belonging to Burgoyne’s army, July,26, 1777.9 The first church (Asso. Ref. Presb.) was
formed in 1793 ;10 Rev. Geo. Mairs was the first preacher.
8 Called at different times “Long” “Legbrants,” “McEachrons
“Cowans,” and “Big Lake.” The name given on the map and in
the text, after having gone out of use, was restored by Dr. Fitch
in his survey. ■ Cossayuna is said by the St. Francois Indians to
signify “ The Lake at our pines,” and is highly expressive of its
1 Summit Lake is a picturesque sheet of water in the co., upon
the very summit of the central range of hills. Two sawmills
are supplied by its outlet.
8 Alex. McNaughton, Arch. Livingston, Duncan Campbell,
and Roger Read settled on the Batten Kil; and James Gilles,
Duncan Taylor, and George Kilmer, near the center of the
town. Many of the lots were never visited or claimed by their
proprietors, and they were taken up by squatters. The first
death was that of Mrs. Arch. Brown.
6 This family had been assured of protection by Burgoyne.
Their murder, together with that of Jane McCrea, had the ten
dency to convert many persons who had hitherto been tories
into active partisans in the American cause.
10 The census reports 5 churches; 2 Asso. Presb., M. E., Ref.
Presb. or Cong., and Px-ot. E. ^ ’
There were three distinct routes,—one from Fort Edward,
down Wood Creek, with a portage of 6 to 10 mi., one from Fort
Ann to the head of South Bay, and one from Glens Falls to
Lake George. 2 See page 682.
Named in honor of the Scottish Duke of Argyle.
This patent was granted to Scotch immigrants (who came
over under Laughlin Campbell in 1738-40) and to their descend¬
ants. It embraced 47,450 acres, and granted township privileges.
Duncan Read, Neal Shaw, Alexander McNachten, (McNaugh-
ton,) and Neal Gillespie were appointed trustees. A stately
avenue, called “ The Street” 7 mi. in length and 24 rods in
width, was laid out (on paper) and surveyed e. and w. through
the center of the township, and lots were laid out on each side.
In the rear farm lots were laid out, thus affording accommoda¬
tions for proprietors and tenants. In the summer of 1764 this
tract was surveyed and divided into 141 lots, in accordance with
this plan, by Arch. Campbell, of N. J., and Chris. Yates, of Sche¬
nectady.. The natural impediments in the way, however, pre¬
cluded the possibility of building the street or in any way real¬
izing, the plan.
Formerly “ Moss Kil ” probably from Capt. Moss, who settled
opposite its mouth.