Gazetteer of New York, 1860 & 1861 page 704
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Beaver Pond is a small sheet of water near the n. line. The soil is better adapted to grazing than
to grain raising. Turkey Hill lies in the s. w. part. North Salem,1 (p. v.,) in the
e. part,
contains 2 churches, a paper mill, and 30 houses. Salem Center,2 (p. o.,) a hamlet, is the seat
of the North Salem Academy
.3 Purdys Station, (p. o.,) on the Harlem R. R., on the w. border,
contains 2 churches and a small woolen factory. Croton Falls, (p. o.,) in the sr. w. corner, is a
station on the Harlem R. R. The first settlement commenced at a very early period, mostly by
immigrants from Conn. The census reports 7 churches in town


OSSINING5was formed from Mount Pleasant, May 2,1845. It lies upon the Hudson, n. of
the center of the co. Its surface is mostly a hilly upland, the ridges extending parallel to the
river. Prospect Hill is a commanding eminence on the s. line of the town. Pocantico River forms
e. boundary. Marble is extensively quarried, and traces of several metals have been found.5
The soil is a productive, gravelly and clayey loam. Sing1 Sing, (p. v.,) upon the Hudson, near
the center of the w. border of tbe town, was incorp. April 2, 1813. It is beautifully situated upon
ground gradually rising from the river to the height of 180 ft., and at most points affording fine
views of Tappan Bay and the opposite shore of the Hudson. It contains 4 churches, the Mount
Pleasant Academy
,7 a female seminary, and several other popular female schools. Pop. about
3,500. This village is chiefly noted for being the seat of one of the N. Y. State prisons. The prison
was erected at this place in 1825, with a view of employing the convict labor upon the marble
quarries. It receives convicts from certain southern and eastern counties, as specified by statute
Prospect Hill9 is a scattered settlement along the s. border. Spring Valley, e. of Sing
Sing, and Sparta, s. of Sing Sing, are hamlets. This town was included in the Manor of
Philipsburgh, and was settled by the Dutch previous to the commencement of the last century.
The lands were forfeited by the attainder of Frederick Philipse during the Revolution
.10 The
first church was organized at a very early period, but the exact date is lost
.11 The Dale Ceme¬
tery, containing 47 acres, J mi. sr. of Sing Sing, was incorporated January 14, 1851.

PELHAM7—was formed March 7, 1788. It lies on Long Island Sound, in the s. part of the
co., on the
e. border, and it embraces several islands in Long Island Sound.13 Pelham Neck14 is a
peninsula extending into the Sound; upon it are several elegant country seats. Its surface is un¬
dulating, the valleys ranging sr. and s. Hutchinsons Creek
8 forms the w. boundary. The soil is
mostly of an excellent quality of sandy and gravelly loam. Pelham'ville, near the
n. angle

colonnade of the Ionic order across the end fronting the river.
It was built in 1835-40, and receives female convicts sentenced
to State prison from every co. in the State: it contains 116 cells.
By an act of April 18,1859, the Inspectors of State Prisons were
directed to sell such of the premises at this place as are not re¬
quired for prison purposes, at a price not less than $250 per acre,
and to appropriate the moneys thus received to building and re¬
pairing such works at the prison as they may deem proper.
Several large file factories are located at Sing Sing.

®Formerly known as “ Long Hill.”

If Families named Ward, Orser, Crank, Bazelie, Acker, Purdy,
Merritt, McCord, Bishop, Balyeas, Storm, Jones, Millet, and
Ryder, purchased under the Commissioners of Forfeiture.

u There are 6 churches in town; 3 Prot. E., Bap., M. E., and

12 Named from Thos. Pell, of Fairfield, Conn. A purchase was
made of the Indians hy Mr. Pell, Nov. 14,1654; and most of
this was confirmed to him hy Gov. Nicoll, Oct. 6, 1666. The
quitrent reserved in this grant was a lamb annually. Pelham
Manor originally embraced 9,166 acres, and was confirmed by
Gov. Dongan. Oct. 25,1687, to John Pell, nephew of the first
purchaser. This town is mostly owned by a few wealthy pro¬
prietors, and, except Searsdale, is the least populous in the co.
Several acres of berries are cultivated for the city market.
Pelham Bridge connects the town with East Chester.

13 The principal of these is “ City Island,”—formerly “Minne-
ford Island,”
or “Mulberry Island.” Its present name is derived
from commercial establishments projected at an early colonial
period and renewed subsequent to the Revolution. It was
supposed that the India trade could be carried on from this
place with peculiar advantage. It is now principally occupied
by oystermen.

Harts Island, or “Spectacle Island,” has an area of 85 acres.
Hunters Island, belonging to the estate of E. Desbrosses Hun¬
ter, has an area of 250 acres, and was formerly connected with
the mainland hy a stone causeway and bridge. High Island
lies near the s. point of Pelham Neck.

14 Formerly “Anne Hooks Neck,” from an Indian owner; and
“Rodmans Neck.” It was a favorite place for Indian
sepulture; and traces of graves are still seen. A ferry was es¬
tablished to Hempstead Harbor and to Matagarisons Bay in
1755, by Samuel Kodman.

15 Named from Mrs. Anne Hutchinson, the fir3t settler. Its
Indian name was Acquoahounck, from a term descriptive of the
red cedar tree.—
Bolton’s Westchester, I, p. 542.


A granite boulder, weighing 60 tons or over, lies in this vil¬
lage, supported about 3 ft. from the ground upon the points of
5 smaller limestone rocks. There is a chalybeate spring near
the village.    *


About a half mile w. of the village is a natural bridge.


This academy was erected between 1770 and ’75 by Stephen
De Lancey for a residence, hut was not used as such, and in 1786
it was purchased for its present use. It was incorp. Feb. 19,1790.
Among its students have been Dan’l D. Tompkins, Col. N. P. Tall-
madge and brother, Hon. James Kent, and several other
prominent citizens. Its patronage at present is small.


2 M. E., Presb., Bap., Prot. E., Union, and Friends.


Small specimens of galena, with several ores of copper, have


This prison was erected by the convicts themselves, 100 of
whom were sent from Auburn Prison for that purpose under
the charge of Capt. Elam Lynds, who had chiefly directed the
building of the Auburn Prison. The novel spectacle was ex¬
hibited on the 14th of May, 1825, of the arrival of this band on


female prison, upon the same premises, but under separate


quarries. It stands on an elevated site, e. of the k. it., with a


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