Charles City, Ya., c. h. Charles City co. Sit-
uated N. of James Eiver. 45 miles S. E. by E.
Charleston, Me., Penobscot co. At the source
of Pushaw Lake. 73 miles N. W. from Augusta.
Charleston, N. Y., Montgomery co. Watered
by several small branches of the Mohawk River.
The surface is hilly ; the soil mostly sandy loam.
43 miles N. W. from Albany.
Charleston, Pa. A township of Tioga co. 146
miles N. from Harrisburg.
Charleston District, S. C., c. h. at Charleston.
On the Atlantic. Drained by Cooper and Ashley
Rivers. Surface low, and liable to inundation.
The South Carolina Railroad passes through it,
and a canal unites the Cooper and Santee Rivers.
Charleston, S. C. City and port of entry.
Situated on a point of land between the Ashley
and Cooper Rivers, at their junction, 6 miles
inland from the Atlantic coast. Population in
1790, 16,359; 1800, 18,712; 1810, 24.711; 1820,
24,780; 1830, 30,289; 1840, 29,261; 1850,
43,000, including in this number the population
of St. Philip's Parish, which is a continuation of
the city north, but, till within a few years past,
not included in its chartered limits. Charleston
is the largest city on the Atlantic coast south
of Baltimore. The harbor, which is formed
by the confluence of Ashley and Cooper Rivers,
is about 2 miles wide, and extends between 6
and 7 miles, a little S. of E., to the ocean. Ash-
ley River, opposite the city, is 2100 yards wide,
and Cooper River 1400 yards wide, and both
are from 30 to 42 feet deep. The ground on
which the city is built is elevated 8 or 9
feet above high-water mark, at ordinary flood
tides. A violent easterly wind, however, concur-
ring with a high course of tides, has sometimes
caused parts of the city to be inundated, which
was the case in 1728, 1752, and 1797. The tide
rises here about 6j feet, and flows in and out
with a strong current, which is supposed to con-
tribute to the salubrity of the city. The place
is considered as more healthy than any other
part of the low country in the Southern States,
and is much resorted to by the planters during
the sickly months. The city is about 2 miles
in length, and over a mile in breadth, and is
laid out with considerable regularity. The streets,
for the most part, run parallel to each other,
from E. to W., extending from river to river,
and are crossed by others at right angles. Many
of them are paved. The houses are, many of
them, of brick, and an ordinance of the city
now requires that all within its corporate lim-
its, to be hereafter constructed, be of this mate-
rial. Many are of wood, neatly painted white,
and having piazzas beautifully ornamented with
vines. Those in the outer extremities have beau-
tiful yards and gardens connected with them.
Every spot in the vicinity, capable of improve-
ment, is occupied with plantations in a high state
of cultivation. The growth of Charleston has
been less rapid than that of most cities of the
United States. It has frequently suffered by dis-
astrous fires. In 1796, one third of this city was
destroyed, at a loss estimated at $2,500,000. In
1837, 1200 houses were burned, being one fifth
part of the city, covering 145 acres of ground,
at a loss estimated at $5,000,000. Nevertheless,
the city has advanced in prosperity, and contains
all those institutions which mark a thriving and
wealthy commercial city. The principal public
buildings are the City Hall, Exchange, custom
house, court house, jail, state citadel, and two
arsenals, a college, a medical college, an alms-
house, an orphan asylum, a theatre, seven or
eight banks, and about 25 churches. Some of
the churches are elegant buildings. The City
Hotel, among the public houses, is a splendid
establishment, erected at a cost of $150,000. The
city has a fine library, comprising nearly 20.000
volumes. There is also a library with . 10,000
volumes, belonging to the Apprentices' Associa-
tion, which sustains an annual course of scientific
lectures. The means of education provided by
the city are good. There is one high school, and
five public free schools.; the whole under the di-
rection of a board of commissioners. The Lit-
erary and Philosophical Society is a highly re-
spectable institution, having a fine collection of
objects in natural history.
The trade of Charleston is extensive. The
harbor is spacious and convenient, though some-
what obstructed by the bar at its mouth. Over
this bar there are four principal channels, having
a depth of water, at high tide, varying, in the
different channels, from 17 feet to 10 feet; and
at low tide, from 10 to 6 feet. After entering
the harbor, the channel, which is deep, passes
very near the S. end of Sullivan's Island, upon
which Fort Moultrie is situated. Opposite to
this point, upon a sand bar, is another fort, called
Fort Sumpter, which stands close upon the chan-
nel. The position of these fortifications is very
effective for the defence of the city. Charleston
possesses great facilities for trade with the inte-
rior. It is connected by a canal with the Santee
River, which is thence navigable to Columbia,
and by a railroad with the Savannah River at
Augusta. The length of this road is 136 miles.
A branch extends from Branchville, 62 miles, to
Columbia. Thus Charleston commands the in-
ternal trade not only of most of its own state,
but likewise much of that of North Carolina and
Georgia. There arc several lines of packets con-
necting Charleston with the city of New York ;
and numerous steamboats running to Savannah,
Beaufort, Georgetown, Columbia, St. Augustine,
and other places.
The exports of Charleston are of great impor-
tance, consisting of rice and tobacco in consider-
able amount, -but particularly of upland and
sea-island cotton. The upland cotton in this re-
gion of country is of the finest quality. The sea-
island cotton is grown on the islands 'in this
neighborhood, and is remarkable for its fineness,
and for its staple, or length of fibre.
This city was first settled in 1680. About 10
years later a colony of French refugees, exiled
from their native land in consequence of the
revocation of the edict of Nantz, settled in Caro-
lina, and some of them in Charleston. These
were the Huguenots, or French Protestants, who
fled from religious persecution similar to that.
which brought the Puritans to New England.
From this noble stock have descended many of
the families of Charleston. Its inhabitants have •
always been celebrated for their intelligence,
their polished manners, and unaffected hospital-
ity. During the revolutionary war, the defences
of this city, on Sullivan's Island, sustaineds a.
violent assault from a British squadron, consist-
ing of 9 ships of war, carrying 250 guns, and
triumphantly repulsed them, by the- bravery of a
garrison of 400 men, under the command of