Hayward’s United States Gazetteer (1853) page 357

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North American mines, which are from one to
four miles from the mouth of the stream, and
upon its borders.

The Phoenix, formerly called the Lake Supe-
rior mine, was the first mine wrought for native
copper and silver on Lake Superior. It was
not wrought properly at first, owing to want
of experience in this new kind of mining, but
has since been carried on with the most prom-
ising success. The Cliff mine, 3 miles from the
Phoenix, was the first mine that was opened in
a truly scientific manner, and has proved the
model mine of the country, and has given most
profitable returns to the stockholders. About
150 men are employed at this mine in extracting
metallic copper and silver from the rocks. This
mine is one of the wonders of the world, and is
unparalleled in its produce; masses of solid native
copper, of from 10 to 100 tons, being extracted by
mining operations from regular veins of the metal.
The copper is mixed with variable proportions of
silver, which is always found free from any alloy,
and often occurs embedded in the solid copper,
as if welded to it only at the points of contact.
This mine produces, on an average, 900 tons of
fine copper, and about $5000 worth of pure sil-
ver per annum. The stock is owned mostly in
Boston and Pittsburg, and is held at a good rate,
but little of it being offered at the brokers' board.

The North American Company have a mine
nearly as valuable as the Cliff, within a half mile
of that celebrated mine, and the works are ad-
mirably constructed, and mining is carried on
with success, both copper and silver being found
there native.

Copper Falls mine, which is 4 miles to the E.
of Eagle River, is situated on a small stream
called Copper Brook, and has been wrought with
promising success, but not to the extent of those
already mentioned. A considerable corps of
miners are there employed in searching for cop*
per, and a regular mine has been constructed, and
native copper and silver have been raised and
sent to market.

All the mines we have named were discovered
in 1844 and 1845, and are situated in amyg-
daloidal trap rocks, near their junction with
sandstone rocks. The veins cross the “ country,"
or traverse the line of direction of the trappean
masses and stratified rocks. Hence they are
called true veins. Stone hammers used by the
aboriginal inhabitants, in old pits, have disclosed
the interesting fact that these lodes of native
copper were known probably for thousands of
years before the white men set foot upon this
continent. All the tools indicate that the mines
were wrought by savages, who employed fire to
cause the rock to crumble away from the copper,
and then broke off masses of the metal. Few of
these excavations are deeper than 6 or 8 feet, but
they are of considerable extent. Aged trees
growing upon the surface soil of these pits prove
that the mining opei'ations were carried on many
centuries ago.

The soil on Eagle River is good, and produces
oats and potatoes in abundance, and some fine
esculents and garden vegetables; but the season
is short, and tender crops often are overtaken by

There are a good tavern, and store, and post
office at the mouth of Eagle River. Some fish
are taken, but the place is not regarded as good
fishing ground.

Earl, Pa., Berks co. Manatawny Creek waters
this town, the surface of which is broken by
South Mountain.

Earl, Pa., Lancaster co. Watered by Cones-
tago and Muddy Creeks. Surface undulating;
soil gravel and red shale. 13 miles N. W. from

Early County, Ga., c. h. at Blakely. Bounded
N. by Randolph co., E. by Baker, S. by De-
catur co., and W. by the Chattahoochee River,
separating it from Ga. Surface level, and
drained by Spring, a branch of Flint, River; soil

East Avon, N. Y., Livingston co. 2 miles E.
from Avon Springs, and 218 W. from Albany.
The surrounding country is highly cultivated,
and the situation of the place is commanding.

East Bethlehem, Pa., Washington co. The
Monongahela River bounds this town on the E.,
and Ten Mile Creek on the S. Surface hilly,
and abounding with coal mines ; soil loamy. 197
miles W. from Harrisburg.

East Bloomfield, N. Y., Ontario co. Drained
by Mud Creek and some other small streams.
The surface is undulating; the soil fertile. 8
miles W. from Canandaigua, and 203 W. by N.
from Albany.

East Bradford, Pa., Chester co. Valley Creek
and its branches water this town, affording hy-
draulic power, and Brandywine River forms its
S. W. boundary. Surface hilly; soil calcareous

East Bridgewater, Ms., Plymouth co. Beaver
and Satucket, branches of Taunton River, afford
this town a good water power. The settlement
of this part of Old Bridgewater was not com-
menced much before 1685. There are two
pleasant villages in the town, at which consider-
able business is transacted. A branch of the
Old Colony Railroad, from South Abington to
Bridgewater, passes near the village of Joppa, 6
miles from the former, 2 from the latter, and 26
from Boston.

East Cambridge, Ms., Middlesex co. See Cam-

Eastchester, N. Y., Westchester co. Watered
by Bronx River and Hutchinson's Creek. The
surface is hilly and somewhat rocky; but the
soil is for the most part very productive. 10 miles
S. from White Plains, and 140 S. from Albany.

East Cocalico, Pa., Lancaster co. Watered by
Cocalico Creek.

East Deer, Pa., Alleghany co. Located on the
W. side of the Alleghany River.

East Donegal, Pa., Lancaster co. Watered by
Little Chicques Creek and its branches.

East Fallowfield, Pa., Chester co. Watered by
the W. branch of Brandywine Creek.

East Fdiciana Parish, La., c. h. at Clinton.
The state of Mi. bounds this parish on the N.
Watered by Amite River, and Comite and
Thompson's Creeks. Soil fertile on the streams.

Eastford, Ct., Windham co. Taken from
Ashford. On a head stream cf the Yantic.
m. N.
W. from Brooklyn, and 31 E. from Hartford.

East Goshen, Pa., Chester co. Watered by
Chester and Ridley Creeks. Surface mostly
level; soil rich sandy loam. 18 miles W. from

East Greenwich, R. I., Kent co. This is the
shire town, and is pleasantly located on Narra-
ganset Bay. It was incorporated in 1667, and
comprises an excellent harbor for ships of 500

A Gazetteer of the United States of America by John Hayward.

Hartford, CT: Case, Tiffany and Company. 1853. Public domain

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