Hayward’s United States Gazetteer (1853) page 516

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Samuel Stinson, about 1793. This town lies mid-
way between Amherst and Keene, being 20 miles
from each. It is 40 miles S. W. from Concord.

Peters, Pa., Franklin co. The W. branch of
Conecocheague Creek waters this town, the sur-
face of which is level, and the soil calcareous
loam. It contains a singular cave, a sulphur
spring, and some iron works.

Peters, Pa., Washington co. Watered by Char-
tier's and Peter's Creeks. Surface hilly; soil
loam. 11 miles N. E. from Washington.

Petersburg, N. Y., Rensselaer co. Little Hoosic
Creek waters this town, the surface of which is
hilly and mountainous, with the exception of a
fertile valley, through which the river flows. Soil
chiefly loam, based upon limestone and slate. 20
miles E. from Troy, and 26 N. E. from Albany.

Petersburg, Va., Dinwiddie co. Port of entry,
on the S. side of Appomattox River, 9 miles
above its entrance into James River, at City
Point, and 22 miles S. from Richmond. The
river is navigable to this place for vessels of con-
siderable draught, and ships come up to Wal-
thall's Landing, 6 miles below the town, with
which there is a railroad communication. Peters-
burg is on the great southern railroad route be-
tween Baltimore and Wilmington, N. C. The
falls in the river here afford an extensive water
power, and this is one of the largest and most
flourishing manufacturing towns in the state. It
has also a lucrative commerce, and exports large-
ly tobacco and flour. There are 7 or 8 compa-
nies engaged in the manufacture of cotton goods,
whose fabrics have a high reputation. Woollens
are also manufactured to some extent; besides
which there arc iron works, cordage factories,
tobacco factories, flouring mills, grist mills, saw
mills, &c. A number of large commercial firms
and commission houses are engaged in foreign

This town was devastated by a fire in July,
1815, and property to the amount of $2,000,000
was destroyed. It was soon rebuilt, with many
improvements. Being situated at the extreme
N. E. angle of the county, the borough includes,
besides Petersburg, the villages of Blandford, in
Prince George co., and of Pocahontas, in Ches-
terfield co. Blandford is said to be the oldest
part of the place, and was once the best built and
most fashionable part of it An old ivy-mantled
church in this part of the town is one of the most
picturesque ruins in the country.

There are many interesting reminiscences of
the revolution connected with this place. It was
twice visited by the British; and here their com-
mander, General Phillips, died of a bilious fever,
on the 13th of May, 1781. He was lying at the
point of death while the town was cannonaded
from Archer's Hill, by the Americans under the
Marquis Lafayette.

Petersham, Ms., Worcester co. The situation
of this town is elevated, but not hilly or uneven.
The centre of the town lies upon the highest land
in it, which is a large, long, flat hill. The soil is
rich and fertile. Though the town is high, yet
the land is not dry, but stony and moist, abound-
ing with springs and brooks. West Brook, a
considerable stream, rises in the town, and Swift
River passes its eastern and southern borders.
Petersham was first settled about the year 1738.
Nichenoag Hill was the Indian name of the town.
There are several handsome villages in the town:
that in the central part is very beautiful; it lies
27 miles N. W. from Worcester, and about 65
W. by N. from Boston.

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Pettis County, Mo., c. h. at Georgetown. It is
bounded N. by Saline co., E. by Cooper and
Morgan, S. by Benton, and W. by Johnson co.
Drained by La Mine River and its tributaries.
Surface level, embracing extensive prairies; soil
of excellent quality.

Pharsalia, N. Y., Chenango co. Watered by
Ostelic River and Geneganslette Creek. Surfaco
hilly; soil argillaceous loam. 12 miles W. from
Norwich, and 124 from Albany.

Phelps, N. Y., Ontario co. Flint Creek and
the Canandaigua outlet flow through this town,
forming a junction in the W. part. Surface un-
dulating ; soil rich clay loam, underlaid with lime.
Gypsum is extensively quarried in this vicinity.
15" miles E. from Canandaigua, and 185 W. from

Philadelphia, N. Y., Jefferson co. Indian Riv-
er and some of its branches water this town, the
surface of which is rolling, and the soil sandy
and clay loam. 16 miles N. E. from Watertown,
and 177 N. W. from Albany.

Philadelphia County, Pa., c. h. at Philadelphia.
Bounded N. E. by Bucks co., E. and S. E. bv
the Delaware River, separating it from New Jer-
sey, S. W. by Delaware co., and W. and N. W.
by Chester and Montgomery counties. Besides
the city of Philadelphia, and the adjacent muni-
cipalities, usually reckoned a part of the city, the
county contains several other townships, of which
the population is also counted with that of the
city. See
Tables of Population.

Philadelphia, Pa. City, and port of entry. Situ-
ated between the Delaware and Schuylkill Riv-
ers, about 5 miles above their junction, and 55
in a direct line N. W. from the Atlantic coast;
although the distance from the mouth of the
Delaware, following the course of the river, is
120 miles. Population in 1800, 70,287; in 1810,
96,287; in 1820, 119,325; in 1830, 167,325; in
1840, 228,691 ; in 1850, 409,352, including the
county. The city is the seat of justice.

The city was originally laid out in the form of
a parallelogram, extending across the neck of
land between the two rivers, at a point where
their courses curve inward towards each other,
and where, at their nearest approximation, they
are about 2 miles distant. The streets were laid
out straight, from river to river, in a direction
which varies but slightly from the true meridian,
with transverse streets, over the whole width,
crossing the others at right angles. With the
exception of Front Street on the E., which some-
what deviates from a right line, conforming to
the shore of the Delaware, and one other short
street, called Dock Street, which occupies the
site of a former navigable creek, all the streets
in the city proper, included between Vine Street
on the N. and Cedar Street on the S., are accu-
rately delineated in the above description. This
regularity of arrangement is less exact in the
districts, which have extended N. and S. far
beyond the city proper, although it is there, also,
a prevailing characteristic. These districts are
the Northern Liberties, Kensington, and Spring
Garden, on the N., and Southwark, Moyamen-
sing, and Passyunk, on the S., embracing more
than one half of the population contained in the
aggregate given above. Including the whole of
the densely-built portions in one description, as
they properly belong to one uninterrupted area,

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