Hayward’s United States Gazetteer (1853) page 525

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good soil. 16 miles N. W. from Martinsburg,
and 156 from Albany.

Pinclcneyville, Is., c. h. Perry co. At the head
of Four Mile Prairie, on the W. side of Big
Beaucoup Creek, and 134 miles
S. from Spring-

Pine, Pa., Armstrong co. Bounded W. by the
Alleghany Biver, and drained by its branches.

Pine, Pa., Alleghany co. Drained by branches
of the Alleghany River. Surface hilly; soil
loam. 11 miles N. from Pittsburg.

Pine Grove, Pa., Venango co. Watered by
Swatara Creek, along the valley of which runs a
navigable feeder of the Union Canal. It also
contains a pond covering 700 or 800 acres, and
formed by building a dam across the creek, in a
gorge of the Blue Mountains. Surface moun-
tainous, containing coal. 43 miles N. E. from

Pine Plains, N. Y., Dutchess co. Wotered by
Chicomeco, a branch Of Roeliff Jansen's Creek,
and contains several small lakes, the principal of
which, called Stissing's, supplies the head waters
of Wappinger's Creek. Surface hilly and moun-
tainous on the E. and W., with a broad fertile
plain between, which gives name to the town ;
soil gravelly and sandy loam. 25 miles N. E.
from Poughkeepsie, and 69 S. S. E. from

Piqua, 0., Miami co. On the S. W. side of
Miami Eiver. 73 miles W. from Columbus. On
the line of the Miami Canal, which affords good
water power.

Piscataquis County, Me., c. h. at Dover. In the
N. central part, including interlocking sources of
the Kennebec, Penobscot, and St. John's. The
settled part is in the S., on the Piscataquis, an
eastern tributary of the Penobscot. Undulating
and hilly, with some high mountains, and in the
N. numerous lakes ; soil good.

Piscataway, N. J., Middlesex co. Drained by
Amherst and Cedar Brooks, branches of Green
Brook. Surface level; soil clay loam and red
shale. 5 miles N. from New Brunswick.

Pitcairn, N. Y., St. Lawrence co. The W.
branch of the Oswegatchie Biver waters this
town, the surface of which is slightly uneven, and
the soil well adapted to grass.
30 miles S. from
Canton, and
180 N. W. from Albany.

Pitcher, N. Y., Chenango co. Watered by
Ostelic River and some of its branches. Surface
hilly; soil argillaceous loam.
16 miles W. from
Norwich, and
127 from Albany.

Pitt County, N. C., c. h. at Greenville. Bound-
ed N. by Edgecombe and Martin counties, E. by
Beaufort, S. by Craven and Lenoir, and W. by
Greene co. Tar River traverses the interior of
this county, and Neuse River runs on its S. W.

Pitt, Pa., Alleghany co. Bounded on the N.
by Alleghany River, S. and W. by the Monon-
gahela, and N. W. by the city of Pittsburg. The
surface is hilly, abounding with coal; soil loam.

Pittsburg, N. H., Coos co., was incorporated
10, 1840; before that it was called
Indian Stream Territory. It lies on the borders
of Canada, and has within its limits Lake Con-
necticut and several considerable ponds. It con-
160,360 acres. 150 miles N. from Concord,
40 N. E. from Lancaster.

Pittsburg, Pa. City, port of entry, and seat of
justice of Alleghany co. This place is 200 miles
W. N. W. from Harrisburg. The population, in
1810, was 4768; 1820, 7248; 1830,12,542; 1840,
21,115; 1850,46,500.
This is the population of
Pittsburg proper; but if that of the adjoining
cities and boroughs of Alleghany, Manchester,
Birmingham, and Lawrenceville were included,
which, both in a commercial and social point of
view, are a part of the same community with
Pittsburg, a more just idea of the size of the
place, perhaps, would be obtained. The city
stands at the junction of the Alleghany and
Monongahela Rivers, which, by their union, form
the Ohio. It is built upon the triangular plain,
enclosed on two .sides by these two rivers, extend-
ing partly up the highlands, by which the side op-
posite to the point is bounded. The distance
from the point back to these highlands is about
one mile; and the different prominences are
known by the names of Grant's, Ayers's, and
Quarry Hills. The place was laid out in
on the bank of the Monongahela ; with streets
running parallel to the river, and others running
back from the river at right angles with them.
The same arrangement was followed when, after-
wards, the town began to be built upon the bank
of the Alleghany ; so that the cross streets, start-
ing at right angles from the two rivers, neces-
sarily meet obliquely, at a point a few streets
back from the Alleghany. Thus the city, in its
outline, bears a strong resemblance to the lower
part of the city of New York. The city is united
to the adjacent country, beyond the two rivers, by
a bridge over each, and by ferries. The site, says
a writer on the spot, is a real amphitheatre,
formed by the hand of nature. The rivers flow
in channels from
450 to 465 feet below the highest
peaks of the neighboring hills, which by accu-
rate measurement have been found to vary thus
slightly between these relative elevations. These
hills surrounding the city are filled with bitumi-
nous coal, which is easily quarried and brought
to the city, and affords unequalled facilities for
manufacturing operations, for fuel, and for lighting
the streets and dwellings with gas. The princi-
pal coal strata lie at an elevation of above
feet above the part of the city which is on the al-
luvial plain; and so uniform is this geological
feature, that a levelling instrument, placed at the
mouth of any of the beds, if carried round the
horizon, carries the circle of vision along the
openings of all the other mines. The coal for-
mation is here, as in every other part of the Ohio
valley, level; so much so as often to render the
draining of the mines difficult. These hills,
though steep, are not generally precipitous, and
afford from their verdant slopes and peaks a
series of rich and varied landscapes. The fer-
tility of the soil continues to their very summits.
There is nothing of barrenness visible, but the
forests, fields, meadows, orchards, and gardens
exhibit one panorama of beauty and abun-

Pittsburg occupies the site of the former French
fort Du Quesne, which the French held posses-
sion of from
1754 to 1758, and whence, by insti-
gating the Indians to hostilities, they brought so
much terror to the frontier settlements of Penn-
sylvania. It was here, in
1755, that General
Braddock lost his life, and the army under him
suffered a defeat, in an attempt to drive the
French from this post, and that the youthful
Washington displayed his military skill, and
gave promise of his future greatness, by con-
ducting in a masterly manner the retreat of the

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