pose, and are used either alone or in connection with seaweed, stable manure, compost, guano,
ashes, and other fertilizers. Oysters and clams abound in the bays and seas around the island.;
and the taking of these, and fishing, form the principal occupations of the inhabitants along the
shore. From the first settlement of the co. considerable attention has been given to whaling.
This business was originally carried on in open boats from the shore j1 but large vessels are now
sent upon long voyages to the Polar Seas.2 The preparation of “fish guano,” and oil from
bunkers,3 shipbuilding, and brickmaking are the principal manufacturing interests. of the co.1
At Fire Island, Greenport, and Orient, and at most of the villages along South Countvy Road are ex¬
tensive hotels, especially fitted for the accommodation of families from New York City, great
numbers of whom spend the summer months at these public houses or in private families.
The county seat is located at Riverhead.2 The courthouse is a fine two story brick building,
situated near the depot, and contains the usual county oflices, and accommodations for the sheriff’s
family.3 The jail, situated in rear of the courthouse, is a two story stone octagonal building. The
county clerk’s office is a fireproof brick building. The co. has no poorhouse.4
The first regulation concerning public roads was adopted under authority of an act of General
Assembly passed in .1724, and was kept alive by repeated enactments. Commissioners ap¬
pointed by this authority about 1733 laid out 3 principal roads' from w. to e. These were called
the North, Middle, and South Country RoaSs, and upon them the principal villages and settle¬
ments are located. The project of opening a navigable communication between the bays upon
the s. shore of the island was recommended by Gov. Clinton in 1825, and was subsequently
authorized by law, but was never carried into effect.5 The Long Island R. R. affords the princi¬
pal avenue of business through the island.6 Short stage routes connect the several villages along
the n. and s. shores with the r. r.
Seven newspapers are published in the co.; 2 at Greenport, 2 at Huntington, 1 at Sag Harbor,
1 at Patchogue, and 1 at Riverhead.7 .
When Long Island first became known, it was inhabited by 13 tribes of Indians, of which all
but two resided wholly or in part in this co.8 Of these the Montauks were the most numerous
10 Frothingham’s Long Island Herald was established at Sag
Harbor May 10,1791, by David Frothingham.. In 1802
it was sold to Sellick Osborn, and changed to
The Suffolk County Herald, It was sold in Feb. 1804, to Alden
Spooner, and its name was changed to
The Suffolk Gazette, and in Feb. 1811, it was discontinued.
The Suffolk Co. Recorder was established at Sag Harbor Oct. 19,
1816, by Sam’l. A. Seabury. In 1817 it was changed to
The American Eagle', 2 years afterward it was discontinued.
Tlie Corrector was started at Sag Harbor Aug. 3,1822, by
H. W. Hunt, and is now published by Alex. Hunt.
The Repiihlican Watchm-an was commenced at Sag
Harbor in Sept. 1826, by Sam’l Phillips. In Sept. 1844,
it was removed to Greenport, where it is now published
by S. Phillips & Son.
The Suffolk Times was started at Greenport in Aug,
1857, by John J. Riddell, its present publisher.
The American Eagle was established at Hurtfington in 1821 by
Sam’l A. Seabury. In May, 1825, it was changed to
The Long Island Journal of Philosophy and Cabinet of Variety,
(mo,) pub. by Sam. Fleet. In 1827 it was changed to
The Portico, and was discontinued in 1829.
The hong Islander was started at Huntington in July,
1838, by- Walter Whitman, and is now published by
Geo. II. Shepard.
The Suffolk Democrat was started Feb. 17, 1847, at
Huntington, and is now published by Edward Strahan.
The Suffolk Gazette was commenced at Riverhead in Aug. 1849.
After 18 months it was removed to Sag Harbor, in
Dec. 1854, it was brought hack to Riverhead, and was
soon after discontinued.
The SnlTbllt: Herald was established at Patchogue Aug.
14, 1858, by Van Zandt & Co., its present publishers.
The Suffolk: Union was started at Riverhead in 1859 by
Washington Yan Zandt.
The Sag Harbor Express was commenced in 1859,
u These tribes were the “ Canarsees,” occupying Kings co. and
a part o'f Jamaica: the “ Rockaways,” the country about Rock¬
away and parts of Jamaica and Newtown; the “Mattinecocks,”
the w. side of the island, from Flushing to the E. line of Hunting¬
ton ; the “ Nessequogs,” the country from the e, line of Hu nting-
ton to Stony Brook; the “ Setaukets,” that from Stony Brook to
Wading River; the “Corchogu.es.” all the N. branch of the island
E. of Wading River: the “ Merecokes” and “ Mureapeques,” thecoun*
j try Upon the s. side of the islands w. of Suffolk Co.; the:‘ Lecatogms,”
i the country from tlie w. line of the co. to the E. part of Islip;
I the “Patchogues.” from the E.line of Islip to the w. part of South-
| ampton; the “Shinnecocks,” the country around Canoe Place,
j and thence E. to East Hampton; the “Montauks,” that are now
i included in the town of East Hampton; and the “Manhassets,”
occupying Shelter Island. Of all these tribes there now remain
At present 3 -whaleboats at Mastic Point, 2 at Shinne¬
cock, 6 at Sduthampton, and several at Bridgehampton, East
Hampton, and Amaganset, are kept in constant readiness for
use upon the beacli. They are mounted, bottom upward, upon
a staging, and are well supplied with oars, lances, harpoons, and
other necessary tackle. During the winter and spring months
a lookout is kept, and when a whale appears a signal rallies 'the
neighborhood to the chase. A year seldom passes without one
prize; and some years half a dozen are captured.
A small two story frame building, erected in 1725, served for
both a courthouse and jail. The first court of Oyer and Ter¬
miner under the State Government was held Sept. 4,1787.
This building was erected in 1854 and ’55, at a cost of $17,800.
The committee appointed to superintend its erection were Sam!
B. Nicoll, Wm. R. Post, and Sylvester Miller. By an act passed
April 9, 1813, the clerk of this co. was authorized to establish
his office in two places, and to appoint a deputy to have charge
of one. The records migrated between Islip and Southold, and
were kept many years at Smithtown. The records of wills in this
eo. extend back to 1669. The records of the court of General
Sessions and Common Pleas have been separately recorded since
Most of the towns have poorhouses, at which co. paupers are
provided for at the co. expense.
The Long Island Canal Company, chartered April 8,1848,
was authorized to effect what in substance was embraced in'
De Witt Clinton’s plan, viz.: communication between Gravesend,
Jamaica, Great South, Southampton, and Mecox Bays, and across
8 The road was opened to Farmington Oct. 15,1841, to Yap-
hank June 26,1842, and to Greenport July 29, 1844.