GROTON1—was formed from Locke, (Cayuga co.,) as “Division,” April 7,1817, and its name
was changed March 13, 1818. It is the n. e. corner, town in the co. Its surface is rolling or
moderately hilly. From the valleys the land rises -by long and gradual slopes to a height of 100
to 300 ft. The highest point in town is about 1,500- ft. above tide. The principal streams are
Owasco Inlet and Fall Creek. Bear Swamp, in the w. part, contains an area of several hundred
acres. The soil is & fine quality of gravelly loam, underlaid by slate. Groton, (p.v.,) on Owasco
Inlet, near the center of the town, contains 3 churches, the Groton Academy, and several manu¬
facturing establishments.2 Pop. 587. McLean, (p. v.,) on Fall Creek, in .the s. e., contains 5
churches, several factories,3 and 40 houses. FeruvIIIe, (p. v.,) near the s. border, contains 2
churches, a saw and grist mill, pail factory, and 30 houses. Groton City, (p. v.,) in the n. e.
corner, and West Groton, (p.v.,) in the n.w., contain about 11 houses each. Bensons
Corners is a hamlet, in the s. w. corner. Among the first settlers were Sami. Hogg, at West
Groton; Ichabod Brown, John Guthrie, and Perrin, at Groton; and J. Williams, J. Iloughtal-
ing, and W. S. Clark, at East Groton. The census reports 11 churches.4
ITHACA5—was formed from Ulysses, March 16, 1821. It is the central town in the co., lying
at the head of Cayuga Lake. A tract of land 2 mi. long and 1J broad, low and nearly level,
extends s. from the lake shore; and from this the valley of Cayuga Inlet opens to the s. w. and
that of Six Mile Creek to the s. e. Ridges 400 to 700 ft. high, with steep declivities, separate
these valleys and surround the low land and the head of the lake. From the summits the surface
spreads out into a rolling upland. A marsh J mi. wide borders immediately on the lake. The
streams are Fall, Cascadilla, Six Mile, Buttermilk, and Ten Mile Creeks, and Cayuga Inlet. In
their course from the uplands each of these streams plunges down the wall-like precipices which
surround the lake, forming series of cascades which for beauty and variety are scarcely equaled
elsewhere.6 The soil is a fertile, gravelly loam upon the uplands, and a deep, rich alluvium in the
valleys. Ithaca, (p.v.,) 1J mi. s. of the head of Cayuga Lake, is the co. seat, and the com¬
mercial center of the co. It is beautifully situated upon a fine alluvial plain, bordered on 3 sides
by lofty hills, and on the fourth by the lake, with which it is connected by a navigable inlet. It con¬
tains the Ithaca Academy,6 9 churches,7 2 banks, 4 printing offices, and a large number of manu¬
facturing establishments.8 The commercial interests of the place are extensive ahd important. A
daily line of steamboats on the lake running between this place and Cayuga Bridge, in connection
with the C. & S. R. R., served to connect the Erie R. R. on the s. with the N. Y. Central on the n.19
The lake is also a link in the great chain of the internal water navigation of the State, and upon
it a large amount of canal commerce, centering at Ithaca, is carried on. The transhipment of
Scranton and Lackawanna coal brought by the C. & S. R. R. forms an important and constantly
growing branch of business. A large proportion of the anthracite coal for the Northern and Western
markets is supplied through this avenue.9 The public schools erf the village are graded, and are
in a flourishing condition. The annual attendance is about 1,200.10 The village Was incorp. April
2, 1821. Pop. 4,908. The first settlement of the town was made by Jacob Yaple, Isaac
9 The manufactories are as follows:—3 flouring mills, 3 paper
mills, 5 plaster mills, 1 oil mill, 1 oilcloth factory, 1 brewery,
1 lead pipe factory, 1 rake factory, 4 carriage shops, 2 tanneries,
2 sewing silk factories, 4 furnaces and machine shops, 2 saw¬
mills, 1 manufactory of collars, bosoms, and neckties, and 8 boat¬
yards ; 25 to 30 boats are annually built, at an aggregate cost of
$50,000 to $60,000. The silk manufactories employ 160 persons,
and produce 600 lbs. of sewing silk per week.
1° The Ithaca & Owego R. R.—the second r. r. chartered in the
State—was incorp. in 1828, and opened in the spring of 1834. It
was 29 mi. long, and had 2 inclined planes ascending from Ithaca.
The first was 1,7331 ft. long, with 405 ft. rise, and the second
2,225 ft. long, with a rise of 1 ft. in 21. The total elevation in 8
mi. was 602 ft.,—which was 602 ft. above its s. terminus at
Ithaca. Horse-power was at first used throughout the entire
length of the road. In the first 6 months it transported
12.000 tons of freight and 3,300 passengers. The State having
a lien upon the road, the Comptroller sold it at auction on
the 20th of May, 1842, for $4,500, to Archibald McIntyre and
others. For $13,500 it was put in operation, under the name of
the Cayuga & Susquehanna R.R. The inclined plane was sub
sequently changed to a circuitous grade road, and horses were
superseded by locomotives. This road is now leased to the Dela¬
ware, Lackawanna & Western R. R., and it is extensively used
for the transportation of coal.
41 During the past few years the coal trade has averaged
90.000 tons per annum. This trade will probably largely increase
with the increased facilities for moving the coal forward.
42 A Lancasterian school was early established here and was
continued to within a few years, when it was superseded by tha
present system of public schools.
Named from Groton, Ct.
Three carriage shops, a foundery, machine shop, and thrash¬
ing machine factory.
Thrashing machine factory, pail factory, two furnaces, flour¬
ing mills, and 2 sawmills.
2 Bap., 3 M. E., 3 Cong., Wes. Meth., Prot. E., and Univ.
6 Name applied by Simeon De Witt, and borrowed from one
of the Ionian Isles, the hojne of Ulysses. It was originally
called “ The Flats,” and its name was brought into use by being
placed upon a tavern sign.—King's Early Hist, of Ithaca. Mr.
De Witt, who for more than 50 years held the office of Surveyor
General, became the owner of the site of Ithaca and the sur¬
rounding country about the time, or soon after, the first settle¬
ment. He died at this place Dec. 3, 1834; his remains have
since been removed to the Albany Kural Cemetery.
the stream flows-is bordered by perpendicular cliffs. A tunnel
200 ft. long, 10 to 12 ft, wide, and 13 ft. high was excavated
through the rock for hydraulic purposes in 1831-32, by J. S.
Beebe. Upon Cascadilla, Six Mile, and Buttermilk Creeks are
also successions of fine cascades, within the limits of the town.
At Buttermilk Falls the water rushes down at an angle of about
45 degrees, in a sheet of perfectly white foam, the appearance
of the water furnishing a name to both the cascades and the
11n 1822 the Genesee Conference of the M. E. Church applied
for the incorporation of a college, to be located at Ithaca, and
considerable sums were pledged for this objecf; but the project
failed of accomplishment.
f 2 M. E., Bap., Presb., Cong., Prot. E., Ref. Prot. D., Af.
Meth., and R. C.