Brookes’ Universal Gazetteer, page 590
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PEN    590    PEN

found in many places among the mountains.
There is a lead mine at Perkiomen. At Mercer,
on the western border of the state, is a manufac-
tory of copperas from iron pyrites.

The limestone of this state affords good marble.
On the Schuylkill, in Montgomery county, is a
quarry of bluish marble, which is extensively
wrought, and exported. Many of the buildings
in Philadelphia are ornamented with it. There
are quarries of slate in York, Lancaster and
Wayne counties, in the eastern part of the state.

The state is divided into two districts, the
eastern and western. The counties are 51, the
townships 651. The pop. is 1,347,672. Harris-
burg is the seat of government, and Philadelphia
the largest city. The other large towns are Pitts-
burg, Reading, and Lancaster. Agriculture is
skilfully conducted in the eastern parts. Wheat,
maize, garden vegetables and fruit are raised in
great quantities. In the interior and western
parts the farmers also cultivate buckwheat, rye,
oats, barley, hemp and flax. The commerce of
the state is chiefly confined to the single port of
Philadelphia. The port of Presqu Isle, on Lake
Erie has also some commerce, and the internal
trade across the mountains is very active. The
shipping of the state in 1823 was 104,614 tons.
The imports during the same year were 10,100,152
dollars. The exports of domestic produce 2,617,152
dollars. Total exports 4,089,435 dollars. The
manufactures of Pennsylvania are very extensive.
At Philadelphia are large manufactures of cotton,
iron, glass and china ware, besides the great va-
riety of articles made in small establishments.
The cloth annually manufactured is estimated at

24,000,000 yards. At Pittsburg and in the neigh-
borhood, are very large establishments of various
kinds. The glass manufactures of this place are
particularly celebrated, and furnish cut glass
ware, and window glass, equal to any in the
country. The glass is white, clear and excellent,
both in texture and polish. The cotton manu-
facture is also extensive, and occupies several
large establishments here and in the neighbouring
towns of Alleghany and Birmingham. The man-
ufactures of iron employ 9 founderies,
8 rolling
mills and 9 nail factories, which make 18 tons of
nails daily. There are also 7 manufactories of
steam engines, and lately the manufacture of su-
gar mills, and small steam machinery to drive
them, has become an important branch of business.
There are two establishments in Pittsburg for the
manufacture of steel. There are great numbers
of iron works in various parts of the state. At
York, is a foundery for church bells, manufactures
of cutlery, surgical instruments, &c. Elegant
carpeting is also made at the same place. _ At
Mavanunk, on the Schuylkill, are large cotton
and woolen manufactories. At Chambersburg,
besides other establishments, are extensive man-
ufactories of edge tools, axes, carpenters’ tools,
hatchets, chisels, Ac. of a quality and temper
equal to any made in England. At Bush Hill,
near Philadelphia, is a manufacture of elegant
floor cloths, from hemp and flax, and of table
cloths from cotton. At Bethany, in Wayne
county, is a glass manufactory, which produces

450,000 feet of window glass annually. At Mead-
ville is a manufactory of paper from straw, which
is extensively used for wrapping paper. This is
the first successful attempt to make paper from

In the western part are large manufactures of
salt from springs. The principal salt works are
on the Conemaugh, a stream running into the
Alleghany. The salt manufactured at Kiska
minitas and Conemaugh has in some years
amounted to 300,000 bushels ; it is sold at from
20 to 25 cents per bushel at the works ; the ex-
pense of manufacturing does not exceed
10 cents
a bushel.

A large portion of the numerous salt works are
near the river in the ravines of the Kiskaminitas,
and coal for fuel is procured from veins situated
above the works, in the side of the hill, and costs
but a cent a bushel. Considerable salt is made
near Pittsburg, from a fountain obtained by boring
270 feet; the water is strong, and is raised by
steam engine; the salt is white, and of a good
quality. This fountain is sufficient for the annu-
al manufacture of 25,000 bushels. There are
other salt springs on the Ohio, and also on the
Chenango and Mahony.

The legislature consists of a Senate and
House of Representatives. The senators are
chosen for four years, and the representatives an-
nually. Suffrage is universal. The govern-
or is chosen for'three years by a popular vote.
There is no Lt. governor and no council. The
governor can only be elected thrice in
12 years
and on retiring from office becomes a senator.
The legislature meets annually at Harrisburg in
December. The state sends 24 representatives to
Congress. The state expenses for 1830, were
6,357,994 dollars, of which enormous sum 5,495,
550 dollars were for canals, railroads and other
internal improvements.

The Presbyterians are the most numerous re-
ligious sect, and are divided into two classes ; one
of which call themselves Associate Presbyterians.
These two have 266 preachers. The Baptists
have 144 ; the Methodists 140; the German Re-
formed Church 73; the Episcopalians 60; there
are also Lutherans, Unitarians, Catholics, Qua-
kers, Dutch Reformed, Universalists and Jews.

The navigation of the Scbuykill has been im
proved by a series of canals from Philadelphia to
Port Carbon in the coal region, a distance of 100
miles: 64 m. of which consist of canals, and the
remainder of portions of the river, rendered navi-
gable by dams and slack water. The canals are
36 feet wide, and were finished in 1825. The Un-
ion canal extends from Reading on the Schuylkill
to Middletown on the Susquehanna, 83 miles; it
is 36 feet wide and four deep. There is a tunne’
on this canal 729 feet long, 18 feet wide and 16
high, being the longest in the United States.
This canal was completed in 1828. A branch ex-
tends up the Swatara to the Schuylkill coal
mines. The Conestoga creek is rendered naviga-
ble by canals, 18 m. from Lancaster to the Sus-
quehanna. The Lehigh canal extends from Eas-
ton to Mauch Chunk 46 3-4 m.; it is 4 feet wide
and 4 deep, and is esteemed the most perfect ca-
nal in America ; it was executed in 2 years, and
cost 25,000 dollars a mile. The Lackawaxen ca-
nal extends from the Delaware and Hudson canal
25 m. up the Lackawaxen creek to the coalmines,
and is navigable for boats of 25 tons.

The Pennsylvania canal is a work undertaken
by the state, and designed to form a communica-
tion between Philadelphia and Pittsburg. A rail-
road is to he constructed from Philadelphia to
Columbia 80 m. Here the canal begins and ex-
tends to the Union canal at Middletown, thence
W. to the Juniata, and up that river to the moun-
tains, which are to be crossed by a railroad or tun
nel; beyond this the canal is to be continued tc


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