Brookes’ Universal Gazetteer, page 706
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SWE    706    SWE

ana paper. The inhabitants are of a robust con-
stitution, and able to sustain the hardest labour.
They are. however, more polished than formerly,
and have several public schools and colleges,
where the arts and sciences are taught. Their
houses are generally of wood, with very little art
in their construction. The roofs in many places
are covered with turf, on which their goats often

The form of the Swedish government has fre-
quently varied. Before the accession of Gusta-
vus 1. it was an elective monarchy. By the
union of Calinar, in 1307, it was stipulated that
the same monaroh should rule over Denmark,
Sweden, and Norway; and hence Sweden be-
came a merely tributary kingdom to Denmark.
From this state of subjection to a tyrannical for-
eign yoke, it was rescued by Gustavus Vasa, on
whom the Swedes, in 1523, conferred the sove-
reignty, and made the crown hereditary in his
male issue. He was entrusted with great pre-
rogatives ; and these were augmented by Gusta-
vus Adolphus, the right of succession being ex-
tended, at the same time, to the female line. In
the minority of his daughter Christina, the regal
powers were greatly circumscribed, and the no-
bles acquired such an exorbitant authority as
gave great umbrage to the clergy, citizens, and
peasants. This proved a favourable opportunity
for Charles XI. to obtain from the states a formal
cession of absolute sovereignty, which quietly
devolved upon his son, Charles XII. Upon the
death of the latter, the Swedes conferred the
crown upon Ulrica Eleonora, his youngest sister,
stipulating, at the same time, great limits to the
prerogative. Ulrica resigned the crown to her
consort Frederic I. From this period the Swe-
dish monarch was the most limited one in Europe,
till 1772, when Gustavus III. effected a revolu-
tion, by which he regained the most essential royal
prerogatives, without, however, being an absolute
monarch. He was assassinated in 1792, leaving
his son Gustavus Adolphus, a minor, who attain-
ed his majority in 1796. This prince was de-
posed on-the 1st of May, 1809, and his uncle, the
duke of Sudermania, was called to the throne.
But soon after his aocession, in consequence of
the sudden death of his son, the crown prince,
he assembled the diet of the kingdom, in order
to choose a successor to the throne. The Swe-
disn diet met for this purpose at Orebro, on the
8th of August 1810, and, after a short speech
from the king, they elected the French marshal,
prince of Ponto Corvo, to the dignity of crown
prince of Sweden. This person, though a French-
man and raised to rank and eminence under Bon-
aparte greatly distinguished himself in the ser-
vice of the allies in 1813, at the head of the
Swedish army, and in 1814 secured Norway to
Sweden by the treaty of Kiel. The established
religion is the Lutheran, and they have one arch-
bishop ant. 13 bishops. Stockholm is the capital.
The annual revenue is 4,500,(100 dollars : the pub
lie debt 17,264,812 dollars. The army amounts
to 45,000 men.

Sweden, p.t. Oxford Co. Me. 52 in. N. W.
Portland Pop. 487 ; ph. Monroe Co. N. Y., 15
m. W. Rochester. Pop. 2,938.

Swcdesborough, p.v. Gloucester Co. N. J., 16
in. S. W. Philadelphia

Swciny, a town of the kingdom of Darfoor, and
a place of general resort for merchants trading to
Egypt- 45 m. N. of Cobbe.

kwver's Island, an island on the ooast of New

Holland, about 8 m. m length, situated at the bot
tom of the gulf of Carpentaria. Long. 139. 45.
E., lat. 11. 8. S.

Sweet Springs, p.v. Monroe Co. Va.; 93 m. S
W. Staunton. Here are some mineral springs.

Sweetsville, p.v. Marion Dis. S. C.

Sweet Water Valley, p.v. Maria Co. Ten 148 m
S. E. Murfreesborough.

Swindon, a town in Wiltshire, 83 m. W. of

Swinemunde, a town of the Prussian states, in
Pomerania, in the isle of Usedom ; situate at the
mouth of the river Swine, 13 m. E. by N. of Use-
dom. Long. 14. 12. E., lat. 53. 56. N. .

Sicineshead, a town in Lincolnshire, Eng., C
m. E. of Boston and 110 N. of London.

Swinna, a small island of Scotland, one of th
Orkneys, situate near the middle of the PentlanU
frith. Here are two whirl-pools, that are dan-
gerous to mariners, particularly in a calm.

Switzerland, a country of Europe, bounded on
the N. and E. by Germany, S. by Italy, and WY
by France. It is 220 m. long and 140 broad, and
is separated from the adjacent countries by high
mountains, called the Alps. Switzerland has
been divided, since 1815, into 22 cantons, name-
ly, Lucerne, Uri, Schweitz, Underwalden, Zug,
Friburg, Soleure, Tesino, Valais, Bern, Basel,
Schaffhausen, Zurich, Vaud, Neufchatel, Gene-
va, Appenzel, Glaris, Grisons, St. Gall, Thurgau,,
and Aargau. The first nine are Catholics, the
next seven are Calvinists, and the others contain
both religions. Each canton has its distinct in-
ternal government. The general government
of the country is by a diet, composed of a mem-
ber from each canton, which assembles annually
iu June at Friburg, Bern, Soleure, Basil, Zurich,
or Lucerne, in rotation ; and the president is
styled Landamman of Switzerland. The diet de
clares war, concludes peace, makes alliances with
foreign states, and also decides on all treaties on
commerce. There are four passages over the
Alps into Italy from Switzerland ; the first is be
yond the lake of Geneva, over Mount Cenis
which leads to Savoy ; the second begins in the
country of the Grisons, crosses Mount St. Ber-
nard, and leads to the valley of Aosta in Pied-
mont ; the third begins in the country of the
Grisons, crosses Mount Simplon, and leads to the
duchy of Milan; the fourth crosses Mount St
Gothard, and the bailiwics of Italy, and termi-
nates in the Milanese. The principal lakes are
those of Constance, Geneva, Lucerne, Zurich,
and Neufchatel. The most considerable rivers
are the Rhine, Rhone, Aar, Arve, Reuss, and
Limmat. Switzerland exceeds every country in
the world in diversity of appearance: the vasxc2xab
chain of Alps, with enormous precipices exten-
sive regions of perpetual snow, and glaciers that
resemble seas of ice, are contrasted by the vine-
yard and cultivated field, the richly wooded brow
and the verdant valley with its crystal stream
Agriculture, cannot, of course, be carried to great
extent, but the grain produced is sufficient for
domestic consumption. The chief riches consist
of excellent pastures, in which many cattle are
bred and fattened, and the goats and chamois feed
on the mountains and in the woods. The men
are strong and rohust. The women are tolerably
handsome, and are in general very industrious.
The peasants retain their old manner of dress,
and are content to live upon milk, butter, and
cheese ; and there are some of the mountaineers
who never have any bread. In 1797, the parti-

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Brookes' Universal Gazetteer of the World (1850)


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