Hayward’s United States Gazetteer (1853) page 305

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lime is manufactured. 40 miles N. by W. from
Windsor, and 16 S. from Montpelier.

Brookhaven, N. Y., Suffolk co. As to territory,
one of the largest towns in the state, extending
across Long Island, and embracing the islands
opposite, in South Bay. Its N. and S. shores are
indented by numerous bays and inlets abounding
with a great variety of fish and fowl. Surface
mostly level; soil consists of black mould, and
in some parts of pure sand. 70 miles E. from
New York.

Brookline, Ms., Norfolk co. This delightful
town is connected with Boston by the Mill Dam
across Charles River Bay, and by a branch of
the Worcester Railroad. It is remarkable for
its varied surface, high state of cultivation, ele-
gant country seats and gardens, excellent roads,
and for its rich and picturesque scenery. 4 miles
S. W. from Boston, and 5 N. E. from Dedham.

Brookline., N. H., Hillsboro' co. 7 miles S. W.
from Amherst, and 40 S. W. from Concord.

. Brookline, Vt., Windham co. A deep valley
runs the whole length of the township, and along
the whole of the E. line of the town is a consid-
erable elevation. During a violent freshet, a bed
of porcelain clay was laid open. The soil is better
adapted to the production of grass than grain.
35 miles S. from Windsor, and 18 N. from Brat-

Brooklyn. Ct., c. li.Windham co. Finely watered
by Quinnebaug River and Blackwell's Stream.
The land is uneven, and somewhat stony, but
the soil is strong. 30 miles E from Hartford,
44 W. from Providence.

Brooklyn, Me., Hancock co. New. Taken
from Sedgewick in 1849.

Brooklyn, N. Y. City and seat of justice of
Kings co., on the W. end of Long Island, sep-
arated by the East River from the S. part of the
city of New York. Population in 1810,4402;
in 1820, 7175; in 1830, 15,396; in 1840, 36,233;
in 1850, 96,838. During the last twenty years,
since the habitable part of New York has been
extending, and becoming more and more remote
from the seat of business, the population of
Brooklyn has increased with unexampled rapid-
ity. It is connected with New York, in the very
district where the heaviest commerce lies, by a
number of steam ferries, which are from 700 to
750 yards wide, and are crossed in four or five
minutes by boats which ply continually between
the two cities. Except on rare occasions, in the
winter, when the ice opposes an obstruction to
the free passage of the boats, these ferries bring
the cities virtually nearer to each other than
would be done by bridges, or even by a contin-
uous connection on terra firma. The greatest
thoroughfare among these is the Fulton Ferry,
from Fulton Street in New York to Fulton Street
in Brooklyn.

The ground on which Brooklyn is built is
considerably more elevated than that of New
York, especially towards its southern extremity.
“Brooklyn Heights," so called, memorable in
revolutionary history, presents a bold front to
the sea, rising abruptly to an elevation of 70 feet
above tide water, affording a view of the city and
harbor of New York, the islands in the bay, and
particularly Governor's Island, with its noble
fortifications, Staten Island, and the New Jersey
shore, all combining to furnish a prospect which
Is scarcely surpassed by any in this country.

The greatest length of Brooklyn, within its in-

corporated limits, is 6 miles, N. E. and S. W..
and its greatest breadth 4 miles. The whole of
this extensive area has been laid out into streets,
though many of them have not yet been opened
and regulated. The city, generally, is laid out
with order and symmetry of plan; and the
streets, excepting Fulton Street, the oldest in the
city, are straight, and, almost without any other
exception, they cross each other at right angles.
They are generally from 50 to 60 feet wide, and
several of them have a still greater width. Many
of the streets are shaded with beautiful trees,
which impart to portions of the city, in the
summer season, a peculiar air of pleasantness
and comfort. No city in the country, perhaps,
is better built than Brooklyn. The houses are
very generally marked by chasteness and ele-
gance of design, and many of them are splendid
specimens of architectural beauty.

Of the public buildings the most prominent is
the new City Hall, situated on a triangular piece
of ground between Fulton, Court, and Jorale-
man Streets. This noble building is constructed
of Westchester marble, 162 feet long by 102 feet
wide, and 75 feet in height to the top of the cor-
nice. The crown of the cupola, with which it is
surmounted, is 153 feet from the pavement. In
the eastern part of the city, near Fort Green, is
the Jail, which is a substantial building erected
in 1837. The Lyceum, at the corner of Wash-
ington and Concord Streets, a fine granite edi-
fice ; the Savings Bank, an elegant structure at
the corner of Fulton and Concord Streets; the
Brooklyn Female Academy, a spacious building
on Joraleman Street; the City Library, contain-
ing a large collection of valuable literary and
scientific works ; a new and elegant Athenaeum,
and the Brooklyn Orphan Asylum, are each of
them buildings which are ornamental to the

The more thickly-settled parts of Brooklyn
have no public squares or open grounds. Such,
however, is the commanding width of many of
its avenues, the high and airy location of its site
in general, and its almost rural aspect, in many
parts, from the abundance of the trees with which
the streets are bordered, that the absence of such
open pleasure grounds is less to be regretted than
it otherwise must have been. Provision has been
made, however, in the newer parts of the city, for
some public squares.

Brooklyn contains about 50 churches, several
of which are splendid edifices recently construct-
ed. Among these is the Episcopal “ Church of
the Holy Trinity," on Clinton Street, a fine
specimen of the Gothic architecture, erected by
the munificence of an individual citizen of Brook-
lyn, at a cost of about $150,000. The Congre-
gational “ Church of the Pilgrims," not far from
the same locality, is a fine edifice, of dark gray
granite, in the characteristic English style of the
period of Cromwell. In the base of the princi-
pal tower of thi3 church, about 8 feet from the
ground, is placed an angular fragment, of consid-
erable size, from the rock on which the Pilgrim
Fathers landed at Plymouth.

The United States Navy Yard, at Brooklyn,
is situated on the S. side of Wallabout Bay,
which makes up with a broad curve from the East
River, at the N. E. part of the city. From this
point a ferry runs directly across to the foot of
Walnut Street, New York. About 40 acres of
ground are included in these premises. There

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