Hayward’s United States Gazetteer (1853) page 312

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pears to possess the most remarkable advantages
for becoming, at some future period, the seat
of one of the largest and most important cities in
North America. Being near the geographical
centre of the great Mississippi basin, and at a
point whicli the Creator, by the convergency of its
great navigable channels, seems to have pointed
out for its social and commercial centre, it can-
not fail, unless from local difficulties it should
prove impracticable to found a city here, of being
at length the commercial emporium of the west.
Its only disadvantage is in the too slight elevation
of the delta on which the place is built, above
the rivers, by the junction of which it is formed,
which exposes it in its natural state to be over-
flowed by their waters at the period of their high-
est floods. This has hitherto prevented Cairo
from realizing in any considerable degree the
magnificent results which its projectors have an-
ticipated. But it is intended ultimately to obvi-
ate this disadvantage entirely by raising a levee, or
artificial embankment, similar to that before the
city of New Orleans, by which the inundation
of the delta shall be prevented. Considerable
progress has been made by the “ Cairo City Com-
pany " towards the accomplishment of this neces-
sary improvement; and their operations, which
were for a time suspended for the want of pecu-
niary encouragement, are again resumed, and
will doubtless be prosecuted to completion, under
the impulse likely to be given to their enterprise
by the success of other schemes of internal im-

The “ Cairo City Property " embraces in all
9500 acres on this delta between the Mis-
sissippi and Ohio Rivers, with the levees, work-
shops, founderies, saw mills, dwellings, hotel, and
other buildings on the premises. 1200 acres
embraced within the proposed corporate limits
of Cairo, are wholly enclosed by levees, raised
above the highest known floods; and the enclo-
sure for nearly
4000 acres, including the above, is
partly completed.

One of the correlative enterprises of internal
improvement, upon which those interested in the
prosperity of Cairo depend for encouragement,
is the incorporation of a company by the state
of Illinois for building a railroad from Cairo,
through the centre of the state, to Peru, at the
southern terminus of the Illinois and Michigan
Canal; and thence, by branches diverging N. E.
and N. W., to Chicago, on Lake Michigan, and
to Galena and Dubuque, on the Upper Mississippi.
A long portion of this road is now in process of
construction. Por the furtherance of this impor-
tant enterprise Congress, by an act passed in 1850,
has granted to the state of Illinois the right of
way for the construction of this road through all
the public lands where it may pass; and also
“ every alternate section of land designated by
even numbers, for six sections in width on each
side of said road and branches," to be sold for
the purpose of its construction. The grants are
made on the conditions that the work shall be
begun and carried on simultaneously from both
ends of the route, and that the whole shall be
completed within 10 years from the date of their
enactment. Similar grants are made, by the
same act, to the states of Mississippi and Ala-
bama, for the construction of a railroad south,
from Cairo to Mobile, on the Gulf of Mexico.
The-construction of the Illinois Central Railroad
has been undertaken with spirit by the state, and
will doubtless be completed within the time fixed
by Congress.

Thus it will be seen that much, very much, is
to be anticipated for the future growth of Cairo.
Having, as computed, “ upwards of 20,000 miles
of river navigation " on the Mississippi, Ohio,
and Missouri, and their tributaries, all centring
here, with a navigable channel open to New Or-
leans at all seasons, and being ‘‘ at the terminus
of the great Central Railroad of Illinois, which
is to form the most direct and rapid route of
communication between the South-Western and
Northern States," and about midway between
the great lakes and the Gulf of Mexico, between
which an entire communication by railroad,
through this place, will ultimately be completed,
it is evident that the local disadvantages above
referred to cannot long oppose an insuperable
obstacle to the causes so powerfully conspiring
to render Cairo a great centre of intercourse,
traffic, and exchange for one of the most exten-
sive and productive regions of the world.

Calais, Me., Washington co. This great mart
of lumber, and of the commerce of a large sec-
tion of country, lies at the head of navigation on
the Schoodic, or St. Croix River, nearly opposite
St. Stephens, N. B. A bridge across the river
connects the British with the American sides.
At Milltown, about 2 miles above the bridge,
40 or 50 saw mills are in constant operation. A
railroad passes from Calais, through Milltown, to
Baring. Calais was incorporated as a city in
1850, and has become one of the most flourishing
places of business in the state.
204 miles from
Augusta, and
28 above Eastport.

Calais, Yt., Washington co. This township is
watered by two branches of the Winooski River.
They unite near the S. line of the town, af-
fording in their course a great number of valua-
ble privileges. It is also well watered with springs
and brooks. The soil is a warm loam, easily
cultivated, and well adapted to all kinds of grain.
The surface is somewhat uneven. The timber
on the streams is mostly hemlock, spruce, and
pine; on the higher lands, maple, beech, &c.
The N. line of the township intersects two
considerable ponds. There are several other
small but beautiful ponds lying within the town-
ship, abounding in fish. Long Pond lies in the
N. W. part of the town. In one autumn, .2000
pounds of trout were taken from this pond. There
are several springs in the town whose waters are
quite brackish. The settlement was commenced
in the spring of
1787, by Francis West, from
Plymouth co., Ms. The first permanent settlers,
however, were Abijah, Asa, and P. Wheelock.
8 miles N. from Montpelier.

Calaveras County, Ca., c. h. at Double Springs,
otherwise called Pleasant Valley. In the moun-
tains E. of the San Joaquin, between Dry
Creek of the Moquelumne and the Stanislaus

Calcasieu Parish, La., c. h. at Lisbon. In the
S. W. corner, between the Gulf of Mexico and
the Sabine River and Lake, which separate it from
Texas. Watered by the Mermenton, Calcasieu,
and Sabine Rivers and Lakes.

Caldwell County, Ky., • c. h. at Princeton. W.
part. Watered by the Tenesa and Cumberland
Rivers. It has a generally level surface, and fer-
tile soil.

Caldwell Parish, La., c. h. at Columbia. N. E.
central. Drained by the Washita River. Sur-

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