Hayward’s United States Gazetteer (1853) page 328

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arrived during the year before. In 1836,4 years
later, the arrivals of brigs, ships, and schooners
amounted to 407, besides 49 steamboats.

The Illinois and Michigan Canal unites the
head of navigable waters in the Illinois Eiver
with Lake Michigan at Chicago. This great in-
ternal improvement was projected, and in part
constructed, to be a ship canal for the largest
class of vessels which navigate the lakes. For a
distance of 30 miles from a point in the Chicago
Eiver, 5| miles W. of the cityv it was excavated,
through indurated clay and compact limestone,
to the depth of from 18 to 20 feet. Beyond this
the canal is only 6 feet deep. Its width at the
top is 60 feet, and its entire length 96^ miles, be-
sides a navigable feeder of about 4 miles, from
Fox Eiver. This is one of the best constructed
works of the kind in the country, opening an
extensive channel of trade to the W., and estab-
lishing an uninterrupted water communication
between the St. Lawrence and the Mississippi.

Another improvement, still more important in
its results to the prosperity of Chicago, is that of
the great Illinois Central Eailroad, which is now
in process of construction between this place and
Cairo, at the junction of the Mississippi and Ohio
Eivers. This railroad will constitute the most
direct and expeditious channel of communication
between the North-Western and the Southern
States, and between the commerce of the great
lakes and the Gulf of Mexico. Especially will
this be the case when its route shall be extended,
as now contemplated, through Mississippi and
Alabama to the city of Mobile ; for which exten-
sion, as well as for the road through Illinois,
Congress has voted a munificent appropriation
from the public lands. Such an important line
of communication, whether by this extension to
Mobile, or by the river, as at present, to New
Orleans, open throughout at all seasons of the
year, must bring an incalculable amount of busi-
ness into Chicago, while it opens to thd Atlantic
cities of the N. a new available access to the vast
resources of the western trade.

The streets of Chicago are laid out in straight
lines, intersecting each other at right angles.
They are of good width, and some of them are
planked ; stone pavements not being used to any
great extent. The largest buildings are of brick.
The place is well supplied, from the region about
Green Bay, with pine timber, another important
material for building ; and the transportation of
this valuable description of lumber through the
canal into the northern parts of Illinois and other
sections of the west, where it is a desideratum,
makes a profitable part of the business of Chica-
go. The city is supplied with water by an aque-
duct from the lake. It has six or seven churches,
some of which are fine edifices, situated on a
public square. Some of the public houses are
extensive establishments, affording accommoda-
tions equal to the best hotels in our eastern cities.

Chichester, N. H., Merrimae co. The soil is
good, and there is little waste land. The E. part
of the town is watered by Suncook Eiver. In
various parts traces of Indian settlements are to
be seen. Pinkfield Pond is in Chichester, from
which flows a stream S. W. into the Suncook.
First settler, Paul Merrill, in 1753. 8 miles E.
from Concord.    

Chickasaw County, Mi., c. h. at Houston. N. E.
part. On the height of land between the waters
of the Yazoo and those of the Tombigbee. The
head waters of the Yalabusha Eiver and Oktib-
beha Creek water this county.

Chickopee, Ms., Hampden co. A large manu-
facturing village, on the Chickopee Eiver, lately
a part of Springfield. There are extensive cot-
ton factories here, also manufactories of paper,
iron castings, arms, machinery, &c.

Chicot County, As., c. h. Columbia. In the S.
E. corner, on the Mississippi. Bartholomew and
Boeuf Bayous and Macon Eiver traverse this
county. Surface low and level; soil greatly

Chictawaga, N. Y., Erie co. Watered by Ca-
yuga and Cazenove Creeks. Surface undulating;
soil fertile. 6 miles E. from Buffalo, and 278
W. from Albany.

Chili, N. Y., Monroe co. On the W. side of
Genesee Eiver, and drained by Black Creek.
Surface undulating; soil very productive. 10
miles S. W. from Eochester, and 230 W. by N.
from Albany.

Chillicothe, Mo., c. h. Livingston co. On a
prairie, about 3| miles from the junction of the E.
and W. forks of' Grand Eiver.

Chillicothe City, O., c. h. Eoss co. A handsome
and flourishing place on the W. bank of the Scioto
and on the Ohio Canal.

Chillisquaque, Pa., Northumberland co. 65
miles N. from Harrisburg.

Chillitecaux, Mo., c. h. Dunklin co.

Chilmark, Ms., Dukes co. This township com-
prises the westerly part of the island of Martha's
Vineyard ; also a range of smaller islands/called
the Elizabeth Islands, and the island of No Man's

Chilo, 0., Franklin township, Clermont co.,
was formerly called Mechanicsburg. It is on the
N. bank of the Ohio Eiver. 113 miles S. W. from

China, Me., Kennebec co. 20 miles N. E. from
Augusta. A fine agricultural township on Twelve
Mile Pond, the outlet of which into the Kennebec
affords excellent mill privileges.

China, Mn., St. Clair co. 51 miles N. N. E.
from Detroit.

China, N. Y., Wyoming co. Watered by Clear
Creek, one of the head branches of Cattaraugus
Creek. The surface is gently undulating on the

S., and still more uneven on the N. The soil is
suitable for the growth of grass. 20 miles S. W.
from Wyoming, and 271 W. from Albany.

Chippewa County, Mn., c. h. at Sault de St.
Marie. Bounded N. by Lake Superior and St.
Mary's Straits, E. by the North Channel and
Lake Huron, S. by Michilimackinac county, and
W. by Schoolcraft county.

Chippewa County, Wn. N. W. part of the state.
Drained by the Chippewa and its branches.

Chippewa, Pa., Beaver co. 7 miles N. W.
from Beaver.

Chittenango, N. Y., Madison co. 1 mile S. from
the Erie Canal, and near the railroad. 120 miles
W. N. W. from Albany. There is a sulphur
spring one mile S. of the village.

Chittenden County, Vt., c. h. at Burlington.
Bordering on Lake Champlain. Its soil varies
from rich alluvial meadows to light and sandy
plains. The beautiful Champlain, washing its
western boundary, gives it great facilities for
trade. Lamoille Eiver passes through its N. W.
corner, and Winooski Eiver pierces its centre.
These streams, with several others of smaller
size, afford the county a good water power. The

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