Hayward’s United States Gazetteer (1853) page 337

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the buildings of the Lunatic Asylum was over

The Ohio Deaf and Dumb Asylum is located
about one third of a mile E. of the State House,
on grounds which are handsomely laid out, and
adorned with shrubbery. Its site was selected
in 1829, and it went into operation as soon as
the necessary arrangements could be made. The
buildings are of brick, and cost, with the grounds,
about $25,000.

The Ohio Institution for the Education of the
Blind is another of these noble institutions, lo-
cated at Columbus. It is situated on the national
road, about three quarters of a mile easterly
from the State House. The edifice is a large
and handsome structure, of brick, with a beautiful
lawn in front. The institution was established
in 1837, and is in a flourishing condition.

The state penitentiary, which is situated on
the eastern bank of the Scioto, about half a mile
N. from the State House, is the largest and most
imposing of the public edifices at Columbus.
The main building is constructed of hewn lime-
stone, and consists of a centre building, 56 feet
front, and four stories high, with two wings each,
200 feet long, and three stories high ; presenting
an entire front of 456 feet in extent. With the
prison yard in the rear, upon the three sides of
which are the long ranges of workshops for the
prisoners, the buildings of the penitentiary en-
« close a hollow square of 6 acres. The centre
building of the main edifice, as seen in front,
contains the house of the warden, the office, and
the guard rooms ; and each of the wings contains
350 cells for prisoners, arranged in 5 tiers, and
exposed through the whole line to the observa-
tion of the officers from the guard rooms. A
railroad, about two miles long, has been laid
down from the prison to a stone quarry, where
a portion of the convicts are employed in getting
out stone. The discipline of this prison is excel-
lent. The prisoners attend divine service on the
Sabbath, and enjoy the privileges of a Sabbath
school, and the use of an excellent library, com-
prising several hundred volumes. They have
Bibles in their cells, unite in exercises of sa-
cred music, and are permitted, occasionally, to
hear temperance addresses, &c., in the chapel.
Their labor yields to the state, after defraying
the expenses of the prison, a surplus of $16,000
or $18,000 annually.

On the 10th of February, 1816, Columbus was
incorporated as a borough. Its present city char-
ter was granted March 3, 1834. The mayor is
elected for two years. The city is divided into
five wards, each of which elects four members
of the city council, who hold their offices for
four years, one in each ward being elected annu-
ally. All other officers are elected annually.

Columbus, Pa. A township of Warren co.

Comal County, Ts., c. h. at New Braumfels. S.
eentral. On the head waters of the Guada-

Concord, Me., Somerset co.

Concord, Ms., Middlesex co. This is one of
the shire towns, and is situated on a river of the
same name. This was the first inland settlement
in the colony of Massachusetts Bay, and derives
its name from the harmony in which it was pur-
chased of the natives. Its Indian title was Mus-
ketaquid. The surface is quite level; the soil,
in some parts, is sandy, but generally it is moist
and fertile. The Concord and Assabet Rivers
water the town, and the Fitchburg Railroad passes
through it. It was here that the first British life
was taken in the war of the revolution. 20 miles
W. N. W. from Boston, and 30 N. E. from

Concord, N. C., c. h. Cabarras co. On the E.
side of Big Coldwater Creek, a branch of Rocky
River. 139 miles W. S. W. from Raleigh.

Concord, N. H., c. h. Merrimac co. The capital
of the state. Population in 1840, 4897 ; in 1850,
8584. It lies on both sides of the Merrimac River,
and contains an area of about 41,000 acres. There
are five ponds in Concord, the largest of which
are Turkey Pond, in the S.
W., and Long Pond,
in the N.
W. parts of the town, on the streams
passing from which are some valuable mills and
privileges. The Contoocook River enters the W.
corner of the town, and uniting with the Merrimac
on the N.
W. line, forms, at its junction, the island
celebrated in history, where Mrs. Dustin made a
desperate escape from a party of Indians, who
were carrying her into captivity, in 1698. On
the borders of the Merrimac, which is the prin-
cipal river of this region, are rich, well-cultivated
intervale lands. The business between Boston
and Concord was formerly conducted by means
of the Middlesex canal and locks, on the Mer-
rimac River; but since the construction of the
railroads, the canal has been abandoned. The
great increase notwithstanding, both of travel and
trade, between these two places, is one of the
best proofs of the superiority of railroad trans-
portation. Concord is rapidly increasing in busi-
ness, wealth, and population, by the extension of
numerous railroads to various points. The
Concord Railroad has a splendid depot, from
which start the trains running N., S., E., and
W.; they also have an extensive freight de-
pot 300 feet in length. In connection with
these buildings, they have a large engine house,
machine shop, repair shop, paint shop, and car
house, with extensive wood sheds. In the centre
of the building is a large and commodious hall,
accommodating from 1500 to 2000 people. The
buildings belonging to the Northern Railroad are
not so extensive as those of the Concord; they
have a large machine shop, a repair shop, and one
of the best engine bouses in New England. The
Boston, Concord, and Montreal, the Concord and
Claremont, and Portsmouth and Concord Rail-
roads are more or less dependent upon the two
former roads for various accommodations.

- The main village is situated on the westerly
side of the Merrimac River, and extends over a
surface of about two miles in length, and from a
half to three fourths in width. Many of the streets
are handsomely laid out, and are beautifully
adorned by shrubbery of various kinds. On Main
Street, six rods in width, is situated the State
House, in the centre of a beautiful common, with
a thrifty growth of maple and elm trees.

Much of the mercantile business of the place
is done on Main Street, which runs N. and S.
from the State House, nearly a mile each way.
All of the public houses, and a large proportion
of the manufactories and shops, may here be found.
Near the northern extremity of State Street, two
miles in length, also a very handsome street, is
situated the Methodist Biblical Institute, a theo-
logical school, commenced in 1847, and now in
successful operation. The state prison is located
on this street. On the westerly side of the Con-
cord and Claremont Railroad is a very extensive

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