Hayward’s United States Gazetteer (1853) page 364

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and a branch extends into the city of Buffalo.
The Buffalo and Niagara Falls Railroad is part-
ly, and the Buffalo and Black Rock Railroad
wholly, within this county.

Erie County, O., c. h. at Sandusky city. N.
part on Sandusky Bay and Lake Erie. Drained
by Huron and Vermilion Rivers. Level and
fertile. The W. part crossed by three railroads
running from Sandusky city S. S. W. and W.

Erie, 0., Sandusky co. Located on the N.
side of Portage River, near Lake Erie. It was
organized in 1833, and settled by the Canadian
French. 16 miles N. E. from Lower Sandusky.

Erie County, Pa., c. h. at Erie. Bounded N.
by Lake Erie and New York, E. by Warren co.,
S. by Crawford co., and W. by Ohio. Surface
undulating, and watered by Conneaut, Elk, Wal-
nut, and other creeks flowing into Lake Erie, and
French Creek, flowing into the Alleghany River.
Soil mostly sand and clay, well suited to the
growth of grass.

Erie, Pa., shire town of Erie co. On the shore
of Lake Erie, 272 miles N. W. from Harrisburg,
90 miles, on the lake,
S. W. from Buffalo, N. Y.,
and 94 N. E. from Cleveland, O. Erie is built
upon a bluff pleasantly overlooking Presque Isle
Bay, the peninsula of which forms it, and the
broad expanse of the lake beyond. The site is
level, and the town is regularly laid out with broad
and handsome streets. The public buildings
are generally fine specimens of architecture, and
many of the private residences are elegant, mak-
ing this one of the pleasantest places in Penn-
sylvania. The Reed Hotel, after the plan of the
Astor House, in New York, is a splendid estab-
lishment. The town contains the usual county
buildings; a splendid Doric temple, of marble,
formerly used by a branch of the
U. S. Bank of
Pa., now by the Erie Bank; an academy; and
several churches of different denominations.

This place has good commercial advantages,
being on one of the best harbors of Lake Erie,
which is generally free from ice a month earlier
than that of Buffalo; and being connected, by a
canal, with the Ohio River, at the mouth of the
Beaver, and thence by the river with Pittsburg,
and, by the Pennsylvania Canal, with Philadelphia.
The canal basin, connected with the harbor at
Erie, is 2000 feet long by 1000 feet wide. It is
connected by railroad with Buffalo on the E.,
and with Cleveland on the W.

During the war of 1812, Erie was an impor-
tant military and naval station. Here, with
most incredible despatch, was built the fleet with
which Commodore Perry gained his victory on
Lake Erie, on the 10th of September, 1813.
Scarcely 70 days from the time the timber was
standing in the forest, the whole squadron, con-
sisting of 3 brigs, 5 schooners, and 1 sloop, was
ready for action.

Erin, N. Y., Chemung co. Watered by Cayu-
ta Creek and some other small streams. The
surface is hilly ; the soil hardly of medium
quality. 8 miles E. from Elmira, and 190 W.
by S. from Albany.

Errol, N. H., Coos co. This town is situated
on the W. of Umbagog Lake. Several streams
unite here with the Androscoggin. The surface
is rough; the soil cold and hard to till. First
settlers, Timothy Ruggles and others, February
28, 1774. Distances, 30 miles N. N. E. from Lan-
caster," and 108 from Concord.

Erving, Ms., Franklin co. Until 1838, the ter-
ritory of this town was called “ Erving's Grant."
It is watered on its S. side by Miller's River, a
beautiful mill stream, and Connecticut River
washes its N. W. corner. There is much ele-
vated land in the town, affording excellent pas-
turage. 10 miles E. by N. from Greenfield, and
80 W. N. W. from Boston, with which it is con-
nected by railroad.

Erwin, N. Y., Steuben co. Situated at the
junction of Conhocton and Tioga Rivers. The
surface is hilly. 20 miles S. E. from Bath, and
210 W. by S. from Albany.

Escambia County, Fa., c. h. at Pensacola. It
is bounded N. by Alabama, E. by Escambia Riv-
er, separating it from Santa Rosa co., S. by
the Gulf of Mexico, and W. by Perdido River,
separating it from Alabama. The surface, near
the coast, is level, but in the interior more ele-
vated. The soil is mostly sterile.

Esopus, N. Y., Ulster co. On the W. bank of
the Hudson. Watered by Wallkill and Rondout
Rivers. The surface is rather hilly; the soil
mostly sandy clay and loam. 7 miles S. from
Kingston, and 68 S. from Albany.

Essex, Ct., Middlesex co. On Connecticut
River, 7 miles from its mouth, in the town
of Saybrook. 37 miles S. by E. from Hartford.
It has considerable shipping and trade, and
something is done at ship building.

Essex County, Ms. Salem, Ipswich, and New-
buryport, shire towns. This county is bounded
N. W. by Rockingham co., N. H., S. W. by Mid-
dlesex co.; S. by Suffolk co., E. and N. E. by
the Atlantic Ocean, and S. E. by Massachu-
setts Bay. There is much good land in this
county, but its surface is rocky and uneven.
It has an extensive sea-coast, indented with nu-
merous bays, inlets, and capacious harbors. It
is more densely populated than any county of
its size in the U. S. It has great wealth, and its
commerce and fisheries are unrivalled by any
section of country, of its extent, on the globe.
It has many beautiful ponds, and commanding
elevations, and its seaboard is the delight of
every beholder. The principal rivers are the
Merrimac, Ipswich, and the Shawsheen.

Essex, Ms., Essex co. This was formerly a
part of Ipswich, and is watered by a little river
called Chebacco, which empties into Squam
Bay, and gives it some mill privileges, and navi-
gable accommodations. Essex is a pleasant,
flourishing town, and contains many fine farms.
It is a great place for building small vessels em-
ployed in the fisheries.

Essex County, N. J., c. h. at Newark. Bound-
ed N. by Passaic and Bergen counties, E. by
Bergen and Richmond, S. by Middlesex, and
W. by Somerset and Morris counties; Watered
by the Passaic, Rahway, and some other rivers,
which afford fine water power. Surface moun-
tainous ; soil mostly red shale.

Essex County, N. Y., c. h. at Elizabethtown.
Bounded on the N. by Clinton co, E. by Lake
Champlain, S. by Warren, and W. by Frank-
lin and Hamilton counties. It contains sev-
eral small lakes, and- is watered by Au Sable,
Boquet, Saranac, and several smaller rivers, and
the head waters of the Hudson. The surface is
hilly and mountainous, much the highest peaks
in the state occurring in this county. Mount
Marcy, in the town of Keene, is elevated 5467
feet above the level of the ocean. The soil is
fertile on the borders of the lake, but sterile in

A Gazetteer of the United States of America by John Hayward.

Hartford, CT: Case, Tiffany and Company. 1853. Public domain image

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