Houclc, and afterwards Paulus-Hoeck, from which
comes Poioles Hook. From a remote period, this
territory belonged to the Van Vorst family. In
1804 the title was conveyed to the Association
of the Jersey Company,'' which received an act
of incorporation that year, and on the 28th of
January, 1820, an act was passed to incorporate
the City of Jersey,'' under which, with various
alterations and amendments, it still continues
with a city government. At the time of its in-
corporation it was a mere village, with about 300
inhabitants. Since that time various causes have
contributed rapidly to increase the business and
population of the place. This is now the prin-
cipal starting-point of the great line of southern
travel. The New Jersey Railroad commences
here, which connects with other railroads to
Philadelphia. The Ramapo Railroad also com-
mences here, uniting with and making a con-
tinuous line with the Erie Railroad. This
also is the terminus of the Morris Canal, which,
after a circuitous route of 101 miles, and a total
rise and fall of 1669 feet, unites the waters of
the Delaware with the harbor of New York.
The city, though small, is well laid out, with
wide and convenient streets, crossing each other
at right angles, and has many handsome build-
ings. It contains five or six churches, of differ-
ent denominations ; a high school for boys, and
a female academy, both of which have an ex-
cellent reputation. Several branches of manu-
facture are carried on in Jersey City and its sub-
urbs, upon an extensive scale. There is a pot-
tery, where the beautiful Delft ware is made; a
flint glass factory, employing not less than 100
hands ; a ropewalk, a starch factory, two or three
iron founderies, and two or three steam mills for
the manufacture of carpets. Being closely con-
nected with the city of New York, with which it
has communication by steam ferry boats every
15 minutes, it is, in fact, though in a different
state, a suburb of that city. It is connected
with the collection district of New York, as a
port of entry, together with all that part of New
Jersey lying N. and E. of Elizabethtown and
Staten Island. The British line of ocean steam-
ers, running between New York and Liverpool,
have established their dock at Jersey City.
Population in 1840, 3050; in 1850, 6856.
Jersey Shore, Pa., Mifflin, Lycoming co. On
the N. side of the W. fork of Susquehanna River.
99 miles N. N. W. from Harrisburg. This place
is on the western branch of the Pennsylvania
Canal, and has considerable business.
Jerusalem,, N. Y., Yates co. Watered by a part
of Crooked Lake and a small stream flowing into
its W. branch. Bluff Point lies in this town,
the surface of which is rather hilly, and the soil
productive. 5 miles W. from Penn Yan, and
192 from Albany.
Jessamine County, Ky., c. h. at Nicholasville.
Bounded N. and E. by Fayette co., S. and S. W.
by the Kentucky River, separating it from Madi-
son and Garrard counties, and W. by Woodford
co. Drained by Jessamine, Hickman, and
branches of Clear Creek. Surface somewhat
uneven; soil productive.
Jewett City, Ct., in the town of Griswold, New
London co. On the E. side of Quinebaug, at its
junction with Patchaug River, and on the Nor-
wich and Worcester Railroad. 47 miles E. by
S. from Hartford. There is a fine water power
here, and an active business in manufacturing.
Jo. Daviess County, Is., c. h. at Galena. Named
from an officer who fell in the battle of Tippeca-
noe. The county is bounded N. by Wn., E. by
Stephenson co., S. by Carroll co., and W. by the
Mississippi River, separating it from Iowa. Sur-
face undulating or hilly, and drained by Fever
River and Rush's, Apple, and Pine Creeks: soil
productive. Lead and copper ores are abundant.
Johnson County, N. C., c. h. at Smithfield.
Bounded N. E. by the Moccason River, sepa-
rating it from Nash co., E. by Wayne co., S. by
Sampson, S. W. by Cumberland, and N. W. by
Wake co. Watered by the Neuse River and its
Johnson County, As., c. h. at Clarksville. Bound-
ed N. by Newton co., E. by Pope, S. by Yell, and
W. by Franklin co. Watered by .the Arkansas
River and some of its branches. Surface rough
and hilly; soil fertile on the borders of the streams.
Johnson County, Is., c. h. at Vienna. Incorpo-
rated in 1812, and bounded N. by Williamson
co., E. by Pope, S. by Massac and Alexander,
and W. by Union co. It is well watered. Sur-
face generally level; the soil in some parts fertile,
but, being low* is rather unhealthy.
Johnson County, la., c. h. at Franklin. Incorpo-
rated in 1822, and bounded N. by Marion, E. by
Shelby, S. by Bartholomew and Brown, and W.
by Morgan co. Surface undulating, and drained
by Sugar, Young's, Stott's, and Indian Creeks.
Soil of excellent quality. The Madison and In-
dianapolis Railroad passes through it.
Johnson -County, Io, c. h. at Iowa City.
Bounded N. by Linn co., E. by Cedar and Mus-
catine, S. by Louisa and Washington, and W.
by Iowa co. Surface uneven, and watered by
Iowa River and branches ; soil fertile.
Johnson County, Ky., c. h. at Paintville. In the
E. part of the state. Drained by affluents of
the W. fork of Big Sandy, which flows through
its eastern border from S. to N. Hilly.
Johnson County, Mo., c. h. at Warrensburg.
Bounded N. by Lafayette, E. by Pettis, S. by
Henry, and W. by Van Buren and Jackson
counties. Watered by Blackwater River and its
branches, and a branch of La Maine River.
Johnson County, Te., c. h. at Taylorsville.
Bounded N. by Virginia., E. and S. E. by North
Carolina, S. W. and W. by Carter and Sulli
van counties. Watered by Watauga, a tribu-
tary of Holston River and its branches. It con-
sists mostly of valley land, having mountain
ridges on its N. W.' and S. E. borders.
Johnson, Vt., Lamoille co. The River La-
moille enters this township near the S.E. corner,
and running westerly about 2 miles, through a
rich tract of intervale, falls over a ledge of rocks
about 15 feet in height into a basin below. This is
called McConnell's Falls. Thence it runs north-
westerly over a bed of rocks about 100 rods, nar-
rowing its channel and increasing its velocity,when
it forms a whirlpool, and sinks under a barrier
of rocks which extend across the river. The
arch is of solid rock, about 8 feet wide. The
surface of this township is uneven ; the soil is a
dark or yellow loam mixed with a light sand, is
easily tilled, and very productive. In the north-
eastern part, soapstone has been discovered.
The village in Johnson is very pleasant. It was
first settled in 1784, by a revolutionary hero of
the name of Samuel Eaton. 5 miles N. W. from
Hydepark, and 32 N. W. from Montpelier.
Johnston, R. I., Providence co. This town