Hayward’s United States Gazetteer (1853) page 436

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The greatest falls in the Ohio River are those
just below this city; which are caused by a bed of
limestone extending across the river, over which
the waters pour with a broken and irregular
current, for a distance of 2 miles, making a de-
scent of 22 feet, and, excepting one or two months
during the period of the highest flood, entirely
intercepting the passage of loaded boats up and
down the river. To overcome this obstruction to
the important commerce of the Ohio, the Louis-
ville and Portland Canal was constructed, ex-
tending from the city to Portland, a village lying
at the foot of the falls, which was formerly the
port at which the boats and shipping from below
were obliged to stop and discharge their cargoes.
The length of the canal is between 2 and 3 miles,
50 feet wide at the surface, and overcoming 22£
feet of fall by 4 locks, sufficiently capacious to ad-
mit steamboats of the largest size. Almost the
entire line is excavated out of the solid limestone
rock, to the average depth of 10 feet. This great
and useful work was finally completed in 1833,
in a most thorough and substantial style of exe-
cution. The cost was $1,000,000. The United
States are stockholders to the amount of $290,000.
The amount of business done upon this river is so
great, that this large outlay has proved a most
judicious and profitable investment. In 1843,
the tolls received, since the canal began to be
nsed in 1830, had amounted to $1,225,350. It is
believed that these falls may be made available
for the purpose of obtaining an incalculable
amount of water power; and that, at some future
period, Louisville may become one of the great-
est manufacturing cities in the Union.

In 1778, a fort was built at this place, and a
settlement commenced. For several years the
inhabitants were harassed by Indian hostilities.
In 1780, the legislature of Virginia authorized
the laying out of a town at the falls of the Ohio,
to which they gave the name of Louisville, in
honor of Louis XVI., of France, the first ally of
the republic. The next year a fort was built, and
the place was made secure against the assaults of
the Indians. For many years, owing to the mias-
mata arising from several surrounding swamps
and ponds, Louisville continued to be exceedingly
unhealthy. But, in 1823, these local causes were
effectually removed; since which time, it is be-
lieved that no large city in the country has been
more uniformly healthy than Louisville.

Louisville, Mi., c. h. Winston co. On the head
branches of Pearl River. N. E. from Jackson 92

Louisville, N. Y., St. Lawrence co. Bounded
on the N. W. by the St. Lawrence, and watered
S. by Grass River. Several islands lying in the
St. Lawrence River belong to this town. The
surface is undulating; soil fertile loam, based
upon limestone. 20 miles N. from Canton, and
231 N. W. from Albany.

Lovell, Me., Oxford co. This town embraces
Kezer Pond, a large sheet of water, and other
ponds whose outlet is into the Saco, at Frye-
burg. Lovell lies 10 miles N. from Fryeburg,
20 W. S. W. from Paris, and 67 W. S. W. from
Augusta. Incorporated 1800. “In this town
are Lovell's Falls, a great natural curiosi-
ty. Where the water makes over into the tre-
mendous basin below, it falls perpendicularly
40 feet. Above the falls, there is a chain of
8 ponds, partly in Lovell and partly in Water-
ford, connected by small natural dams, 1 or 2
rods in width, through which there are sluice-
ways, which will admit the passage of a common
sail boat. The scenery of the mountains and
ascending lands in the vicinity is rural and beau-

Lovington, Va., c. h. Nelson co. 105 miles W.
by N. from Richmond.

Lowell, Me., Penobscot co. Formerly called
Huntsville. Incorporated by its present name
in 1838. 30 miles E. of N. from Bangor.

Lowell, Ms. City, and one of the seats of jus-
tice of Middlesex co. Situated on the Merrimae
River, at the point where it receives the Concord
River. 26 miles N. W. from Boston, 45 N. N.E.
from Worcester, 13 S. W. from Lawrence, and
50 S. S. E. from Concord, N. H. The rapid
growth of this city, the variety and richness of
its manufactures, and the peculiar character of
its population, have rendered it an object of
interest and inquiry throughout the world. In
these respects, it stands unrivalled in this country,
and is well entitled to the appellation of the
“ Manchester of America.''

The township was taken from Chelmsford in
1826, and embraces a territory, including the vil-
lage of Belvidere, on the opposite side of the
Concord River, which has since been annexed to
Lowell from the corner of Tewksbury, of about
5 square miles. The number of inhabitants on
this territory in 1820 was less than 200; and
the whole valuation of property did not exceed
$100,000. The first purchases, with a view to
the establishment of manufactories here, were
made in 1821. The Merrimae Company, which
was the first incorporated, was established in
1822, with a capital of $1,500,000; and the first
cloth woven was in one of their mills, in 1823.
There are now 12 incorporated companies in Low-
ell, employing a capital of nearly $14,000,000,
besides about $500,000 more of other manufac-
turing and mechanical investments, which is em-
ployed by individual enterprise. The population
in 1830 was 6477; in 1840, 20,796; in 1850,
33,385; and at the present time, (1852,) not less
than 35,000.

All the principal water privileges at Lowell
are owned by a company called “ The Proprie-
tors of the Locks and Canals on Merrimae
River.'' This company was incorporated in
1792, for the purpose of constructing a canal
from the head of Pawtucket Falls, so called,
in the Merrimae River, to - the Concord River,
near its junction with the Merrimae, for the
purpose of affording a passage to boats and
rafts navigating the river. This canal is a mile
and a half long, 60 feet wide, and 6 or 8 feet
deep. It is still used to some extent for the
purpose originally intended. But when the de-
sign was entertained of applying the immense
water power thus created to manufacturing pur-
poses, this company, having secured the title to
a considerable area on the south side of the
river, sold out to other companies the sites for
mills, agreeing to furnish them with a certain
amount of water for a stipulated annual rent.
They also erected an extensive shop for the
manufacture of machinery, from which, in as
short a time as three months, they can furnish
the machinery complete for a cotton mill of
6000 spindles; and in the same time, if required,
they also build the mill itself, to the orders of
new company, and furnish it ready to be oper-
ated. The facilities thus afforded contributed

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