Hayward’s United States Gazetteer (1853) page 485

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Yellow Breeches Creek, drains the surface, which
is chiefly level
; the soil is a calcareous loam. 16
miles AV. from Carlisle.

Newton County, Ts., c. h. at Burkeville. In
the western part of the state.

Newton Falls, <_)., Trumbull co. At the conflu-
ence of the 2 branches of Mahoning River. 162
miles N. E. from Columbus. The rivers here af-
ford a good water power. The Pennsylvania and
Ohio Canal passes this place.

Newton Lower Falls, Ms., Middlesex co., lie
principally on the E. side of Charles River. 11
miles W. from Boston. See
Newton, Ms.

Newton Upper Falls, Ms., Middlesex co. On
the E. side of Charles River. 9 miles W. from
Boston. See
Newton, Ms.

Newtown, Ct., Fairfield co. This town was
incorporated in 1708. It is watered by Pa-
tatuck River, the Indian name o-f the place. The
surface of the town is hilly; many of the emi-
nences are extensive and continuous; the soil is
principally a gravelly loam, generally fertile and
productive. It is well adapted to the culture of
grain, and is also favorable for fruit, there be-
ing many valuable orchards in the town. The
borough of Newtown is beautifully situated on
high ground.

The flourishing village of Sandy Hook is situ-
ated about l£ miles N. E. of the central part of
Newtown, at the foot of a rocky eminence or
bluff, from the top of which is a fine prospect of
the surrounding country. A fine mill stlcam
(the Patatuck) runs in a northerly course through
the village, at the base of the cliff, which rises
almost perpendicular to the height of 160 feet.
Near a cotton factory, at the northern extremity
of the village, some traces of coal have been-dis-
covered. 25 miles W. N. W. from New Haven.

*Newtown, N. H., Rockingham co. Country
Pond lies in Newtown and Kingston, and 2 other
small ponds connect, by outlets, with its waters.
The soil produces good crops of grain or grass.
First settler, in 1720, Joseph Bartlett. 40 miles
S. E. from Concord, and 27 S. W. from Ports-
mouth, by the Boston and Maine Railroad.

Newtown, N. Y., Queens co. This town com-
prises 2 or 3 islands lying in the East River,
which bounds it on the N., and is watered on the
AV. by Newtown Creek. The surface is diversi-
fied; soil clay loam and sand, well adapted to
fruit. 12 miles AV. from Hempstead, and 153 S.
from Albany.

Newtown, Pa., Bucks co. Newtown, a branch
of Neshaminy Creek, waters this town, and.
affords hydraulic power. Surface level; soil
rich clay loam. 118 miles E. from Harrisburg.

New Utrecht, N. Y., Kings co. On the W. ex-
tremity of Long Island, separated from Staten
Island by the “ Narrows.'' 6 miles S. from
Brooklyn and 152 from Albany.

New Vineyard, Me., Franklin co. 40 miles N.
AV. from Augusta.

New Windsor, N. Y., Orange co. Drained by
Murderer's Creek, a branch of the Hudson, which
bounds it on the E. The surface is hilly and
uneven, but the soil mostly arable and fertile.
3 miles S. from Newburg, and 89 from Albany.

New York, city and county. Principal city of the
state of New York. In population, wealth, and
commerce, New York is the principal city in
the United States. It is situated on Manhattan
Island, at the confluence of North River with the
strait called East River, which connects Long Isl-
and Sound with the harbor of New York. It is dis-
145 miles S. from Albany, the capital of the
state. The population, in
1790, was 33,131; in
1800, 60,489; in 1810, 96,373; in 1820, 123,706;
in 1830, 202,589; in 1840, 312,710; in 1850,

Manhattan Island, the whole of which is em-
braced in the chartered limits of the city, is
bounded on the N. by Haerlem River, a small
strait, which passes from the East River to the
Hudson, navigable for small vessels ; on the E.
by East River, or strait, which separates it from
Long Island ; on the S. by the harbor; and on
AV. by the North River, which separates it
from New Jersey. Its length, from the Battery,
at the southern point, to Kingsbridge, the most
northern limit, is thirteen and one third miles : its
average breadth is one mile and three fifths. Its
widest part is on the line of Eighty-Eighth Street,
where the distance from river to river is about two
miles and one third. The whole contents of the
island is about
22 square miles, or 14,000 acres.

The natural surface of the island was uneven,
as is still the case in the northern part, with oc-
casionally low valleys and marshes. But as far
as the building of the city has extended, the hills
have been graded and the low places filled up.
As early as 1804, this necessity was anticipated
by the legislature, and a plan was established by
law for locating the streets, cutting down the
hills, and filling up the valleys to a regular and
uniform grade for a distance of 8 miles in
extent. The highest elevation of the ground
above tide water, in any part of the island, is 238
feet. Many of the creeks and inlets on the shores
of the rivers have disappeared; and the entire
water line has been materially changed from what
it originally was. In the S. part of the city, a
large part of AVater, Front, and South Streets,
on the East River, and of Greenwich, AVashing-
ton, and AVest Streets, on the North River, are
built upon ground which has been made by en-
croaching upon those rivers. The portiou of city
which is compactly built covers the whole
southern part of the island for a distance of
about 4 miles from the Battery, each way, upon
the rivers, and is continually extending its lim-
its to the N.; while nearly the whole of that
part of the island has been surveyed and laid out
into streets, upon a regular and convenient plan,
ready for occupancy as fast as any part of it may
be required. The streets in the older portions of
the city were laid out in conformity to the origi-
nal surface of the ground and the diverging di-
rection of the 2 river margins. Some of them
are crooked, narrow, and inconvenient; and some
of the most important, which were formerly so,
have been widened and straightened at great ex-
pense. Much improvement, in this respect, was
effected in the building up of that portion of the
lower part of the city, covering between 30 and 40
acres, which was burned down by the great fire of
the 16th December, 1835. Broadway, which is at
once the most elegant and fashionable street, and
the greatest thoroughfare of the city, traverses its
length for 2£ miles in a straight line, from N. to
commencing at the Battery and terminating at
Union Square, where it is connected with the
Fourth Avenue, running N. at only a slight devia-
tion from the same line. This splendid street,
which is 80 feet wide,occupies the natural crown of
the island between the two rivers. There are only
three or four streets
S. of the termination of

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