Hayward’s United States Gazetteer (1853) page 496

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ing the city was established in 1697, requiring
that lights be put in the windows of the houses
fronting on the streets, on a penalty of ninepence
for every night's omission; and that a lighted
lantern be hang out upon a pole at every 7th
house, the expense to be borne equally by the
7 intervening houses. In 1703, Wall Street was
paved from William Street to the English (Trin-
ity) Church. The Presbyterian ministers were
prohibited from preaching by Governor Cornbury,
in 1707, and two of their number were arrested
and tried for violating this prohibition ; but they
were discharged on their paying $220 costs. In
1719, a Presbyterian Church was built in Wall
Street. In 1725, the New York Gazette, a weekly
newspaper, was established. The first stage be-
gan to run between New York and Boston in
1732. It made its trips once a month, and was
14 days on the journey. In 1745, Lady Murray
owned the only coach in New York. The city,
the next year, contained 1834 houses, and 11,717
inhabitants, all lying below the Park, having in-
creased about 1000 in 9 years. A theatre was
opened-in 1750. From this time to the period of
the revolution, streets were laid out, and built
upon more or less, as far N. as Murray Street.

In consequence of the disastrous issue of the
battle of Long Island, soon after the commence-
ment of the war, in 1776, the city was taken pos-
session of by the British army, Under Lord
Howe, and occupied by them until November 25,
1783, when they evacuated it, upon the inde-
pendence of the United States being established.
On that day, General Washington, at the head of
the American army, entered the city. The Brit-
ish had erected works across the island, near
Duane Street. After the devastation committed
by the British upon the houses of worship, the
college, and other public institutions, and in con-
sequence of the loss of the books and accounts
of the corporation, which had been carried off
by the treasurer, who joined the British and left
the country, much difficulty was found in tracing
out and securing various descriptions of the
public property. The whole increase of the pop-
ulation of New York, during a century of the
English rule, did not exceed 20,000, which at the
present day must seem greatly disproportionate
to its commercial advantages in relation to the
American colonies, and under the auspices of
such a nation as Great Britain. But when we
consider the strange and unnatural restrictions
thrown around the colonies by the mother coun-
try, our surprise is diminished. Governor Com-
bury, writing from New York to his superiors at
home, in 1705, says, “ I hope I may be pardoned
if I declare my opinion to be that all these collo-
neys, which are but twigs belonging to the main
tree, ought to be kept entirely dependent upon
and subservient to England; and that can never
be if they are suffered to go on in the notions
they have, that as they are Englishmen, so they
may set up the same manufactures here as people
may do in England.'' In conformity with this
policy, the people of New York were not allowed
to manufacture cloths of any kind, except for
their own use. After the close of the revolution,
the city contained 23,614 inhabitants, being an
increase of about 2000 in 15 years.

In 1785, the first Congress after the war was
organized in New York, in the City Hall, where
the Custom House now stands; grid here, four
years later, when the constitution had been
adopted, Washington was inaugurated president
of the United States.

From this time, in our country, commences the
period of modern history, so to speak; and the
most important events in the annals of the city
must be comparatively familiar to the reader.
For a place of such magnitude, New York cannot
be considered unhealthy. It has enjoyed as great
an exemption as cities of this class in most
countries from the ravages of epidemic diseases.
It has been four times visited by yellow fever,
viz., in 1742, in 1798, in 1805, and in 1822. The
disease was the most fatal in 1798, when it pre-
vailed from July to November, and the deaths
amounted to 2086. The city, with other cities
large and small, suffered severely from Asiatic
cholera in the years 1832, 1834, and 1849. The
deaths in July and August, 1832, numbered
4673 : and during the year, 9975. The deaths
during the year 1850, a year of ordinary health,
were 15,377; which is a ratio of 1 to 33 of the
population. This ratio does not vary materially
from that of other northern cities of the largest

The most extensive and destructive fire which
has ever occurred in New York was that of the
16th of December, 1835, which swept over be-
tween 30 and 40 acres of the most valuable part
of the city, densely occupied with stores and filled
with the richest merchandise. About 650 build-
ings were consumed, and the amount of property
destroyed was estimated, by a committee appoint-
ed to ascertain the loss, at nearly $18,000,000.
Under this heavy calamity, the wealth and recu-
perative energies of the city were in a wonderful
manner demonstrated, as in an incredibly short
time the whole burned district was covered again
with stores and with public edifices, more costly,
convenient, and elegant than before.

The first formal charter of the city was granted
June 12, 1665. This has been superseded by a
second, and also by a third, granted in 1730, which,
though much changed by acts of the legislature,
forms the basis of the present rights and privi-
leges of the city. The present charter, by tho
New York legislature, was granted in 1831
The city is divided at present into 19 wards, each
of which annually elects an alderman and an as-
sistant alderman, to each of the two boards re-
spectively, which constitute the common coun-
cil. The mayor is chosen annually by the elect-
ors of the city.

It is now (1852) 237 years since the passengers
of a Dutch emigrant vessel established their rude
habitations on the southern extremity of Man-
hattan Island. The annals of the city, during
the period which has intervened, and more espe-
cially since the country became an independent
nation, illustrate its unexampled progress in
population, wealth, and commercial greatness.
“ In these respects,'' to adopt the words of the
editor of the New York Manual of the Corpora-
tion for 1851, “it maybe safely said, that history
affords no equal example of prosperity; and, if
we may anticipate the lapse of another century,
its extent and population will stand with scarcely
a rival among the cities of the world.''

New Yorlc Mills, N. Y., Oneida co. An im-
portant manufacturing village on Sadaquada
Creek. 96 miles
W. N. W. from Albany.

Niagara County, N. Y., c. h. at Lockport.
Formed from Genesee co. in 1808. Lake On-
tario bounds it on the N., Orleans co. on the E.,

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