Hayward’s United States Gazetteer (1853) page 498

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of the James and Appomattox Rivers. Popula-
tion, in 1810, 9193; 1820, 8478; 1830, 9816;
1840, 10,920; 1850, 14,320.

The site of Norfolk is low, and in some parts
marshy; but the principal streets are well paved,
lighted, and clean, though others are less com-
modious and pleasant. The general style of the
buildings is not distinguished for elegance. The
public buildings are a court house, jail, market
house, theatre, banks, insurance offices, an or-
phan asylum, an academy, and an athanseum,
which has a respectable library. There are 8 or
10 churches, 2 of which are Episcopal, 2 Meth-
odist, 1 Presbyterian, 1 Baptist, 1 Roman Catho-
lic, and 1 African.

The harbor of Norfolk is spacious, easy of ac-
cess, and deep enough to admit vessels of 18 feet
draught. The entrance, between Old Point Com-
fort and the Rip Raps, is more than a mile wide,
defended by Fort Munroe and Fort Calhoun.
The former, on Old Point Comfort, including the
ditch or moat, covers 70 acres of ground; and
the whole peninsula ceded by the state to the
United States contains 250 acres. This work is
calculated to mount 335 guns, the most of which
are either 42's, 32's, or 24's, and about 130 of
them under bomb-proof covers. Fort Calhoun,
on the opposite side of the river, covers about 7
acres, for which a solid foundation was prepared
by throwing stones into the flats near the chan-
nel, and suffering them to settle for several years
before erecting the superstructure. This work
will mount 265 guns, 32 and 24 pounders, nearly
all under cover. These fortifications completely
command the entrance to the harbor from Hamp-
ton Roads. Opposite to Norfolk is Portsmouth,
immediately above which is Gosport, one of the
most important navy yards in the United States,
having a splendid dry dock, constructed of hewn
granite, at a cost of $974,356. About a mile from
Norfolk, on Washington Point, between the E.
and W. branches of Elizabeth River, stands the
United States Marine Hospital, which is a hand
some edifice of brick.

The Dismal Swamp Canal, which connects
the waters of Albemarle Sound with Chesapeake
Bay, opens to Norfolk the commerce of the great
basins of the Roanoke and Chowan, and, conse-
quently, some of the finest sections of North
Carolina and Virginia. The James River, which
is navigable for sloops 150 miles, to Richmond,
and for bateaux 220 miles above that place, opens
a valuable trade into an extensive and produc-
tive country. This port has more foreign com-
merce than any other place in Virginia.

Norridgewock, Me., c. h. Somerset co. On both
sides of the Kennebec, 28 miles N. from Augus-
ta. The village is situated on the N. side of the
river, directly in the bend, 5 miles W. of Skow-
hegan Falls. It is a pleasant place, the main
street being broad, and shaded by fine trees. Nor-
ridgewock is famous in history as the residence
of the Norridgewock Indians, and the seat of a
French Jesuit mission.

Norristown, As., c. h. Pope co. On the Arkan-
sas. 71 miles N. W. from Little Rock.

Norristown, Pa., c. h. Montgomery co. 16 miles
from Philadelphia. The town is handsomely
built. Many of the buildings being covered with
stucco gives it a bright and lively appearance.
Besides the usual county buildings, and several
handsome churches, there is an academy, a private
seminary for boys, and public library. The princi-
pal growth of this place has been within the
last 15 or 20 years, since the erection of a dam
across the Schuylkill, which has created an im-
mense water power, giving rise to several large
manufacturing establishments. These consist of
extensive cotton factories, iron works, shops for
building locomotives, saw mills, grist mills, &c.

A bridge across the Schuylkill, 800 feet long,
was built in 1830, at a cost of $32,000. The
Norristown and Philadelphia Railroad, opened
about 1835, connects these two places, passing
through Conshocken and Managunk. The rail-
road from Philadelphia to Reading and Potts-
ville passes along the opposite bank of the river.
On that side of the river also are the locks of the
Schuylkill Navigation Company, around which,
and at the station of the Reading Railroad, a
small village has sprung up. About 3 miles W.
of this place are extensive marble quarries, from
which a part of the stone was obtained for the
Girard College. A saw mill, for cutting it into
merchantable forms, is in operation at Norris-
town. This place was laid out in 1784, and in-
corporated as a borough March 31, 1812.

Norriton, Pa., Montgomery co. Watered by
the Schuylkill River, which affords extensive
water power, and by some small streams flowing
into it. Surface level; soil fertile red shale.

North Adams, Ms., Berkshire co. See Adams,

Northampton, Ms., shire town of Hampshire co.
93 miles AV. from Boston, by the old stage route,
and 115 miles by railroad, via Springfield, from
which it is 17 miles N. Population in 1790,
1628;    1800, 2190; 1810, 2631; 1820, 2854;

1830, 3613; 1840, 3750; 1850,5278.

This town is delightfully situated, on the W.
side of the Connecticut, on elevated ground, about
a mile from the river, between which and the
town are large tracts of meadow land, the most
fertile and beautiful to be found in this or any
other country. These meadows comprise between
3000 and 4000 acres. A fine bridge, 1080 feet
long, connects this town with Hadley.

This territory, with that of the towns adjoining,
was purchased, in 1653, of “ the chief and proper
owners,'' and conveyed to John Pynchon, for the
planters, for the consideration of one hundred
fathoms of wampum, ten coats, and some small
gifts, and also for ploughing up 16 acres of
land on the E. side of
Quonnecticut river. Tho
Indian name of the territory was

Since the first settlements in the Connecticut
basin, this town has been an important.point of
attraction. It was the third town settled on Con-
necticut River in Massachusetts. The soil of the
town is alluvial, and its products exuberant.
Both before and since the division of the old
county into three, this place has been the seat of
justice. The buildings of the county and town
are handsome, and the most important county
offices are
fire proof.

The town is irregularly but handsomely laid
out, and is regarded as one of the most pleasant
for an elegant residence of any in New England.
The ground rises, W. of the village, into a con-
siderable elevation of regular form, called Round
Hill, which is the site of several of the finest
edifices in this part of the country. Above them
all, and crowning the summit of the hill, is
the celebrated water cure and boarding establish-
ment, which occupies an extensive range of
buildings originally constituting three separate

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