Hayward’s United States Gazetteer (1853) page 520

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4; Associate Reformed, 2; German Reformed,
3; Lutheran, 5; Independent, 2; Dutch Reformed,
2; Roman Catholic, 12; Friends, 7 ; Jewish Syn-
agogues, 3; Mariners, 2; Universalist, 2 ; Unita-
rian, 1; New Jerusalem, 1; Moravian, 1; Disci-
ples of Christ, 1; and 12 of various denominations
for colored persons. Only a few of the church
edifices make pretensions to architectural beauty.
Very many of them are without towers or stee-
ples to distinguish them from the general mass
of buildings. St. Stephen's Church, (Episcopal,)
situated on Tenth Street, is a fine specimen of
Gothic architecture, 102 feet long and 50 feet
wide, with two octagonal towers 86 feet high.
Christ Church, built in 1691, and enlarged in
1810, is the oldest church edifice in the city. It
is situated on Second Street. It has a spire 196
feet high, erected in 1753. in which is a chime of
bells. ' St. John
'3 Church, (Roman Catholic,)
situated on Thirteenth Street, below Market, is
an elegant Gothic structure, with square towers
on each of its front corners. The First Presby-
terian Church, fronting on the S. side of Wash-
ington Square, is the handsomest church of this
denomination. It is in the Grecian style of archi-
tecture, after the model of a temple on the Ilis-
sus, having a portico ,of six Ionic columns in
front. The Fifth Presbyterian Church, on Arch
Street, is also distinguished for the beauty of its
architecture. There are also other church edifices
which are neat and handsome structures.

The United States Mint in Philadelphia was
founded in 1790, and first occupied the building
where the Apprentices' Library now is. In 1830
it was removed to the fine building which it now
occupies, on Chestnut Street, below Broad Street.
This edifice is of white marble, 123 feet long,
having a portico of 6 columns, and 60 feet in
length in the centre of its front, on Chestnut
Street, and a similar one on the opposite side,
which looks out upon Penn Square. Visitors are
admitted to witness the interesting processes of
assaying and coining the precious metals, on the
forenoon of every day, upon application to the
proper officers. The.United States navy yard
is located in the S. E. quarter of the city, fronting
on the Delaware. The enclosure contains about
12 acres. Some of the largest vessels for the U.
S. service have been built here. The Eastern
Penitentiary, in the N. W. section of the city, not
far distant from the Girard College, is one of the
most imposing structures. It occupies a square
of 10 acres, which is enclosed by a wall 30 feet
high, upon the angles of which, and at the en-
trance, watch towers are erected, from which all
parts of the enclosure can be observed. In the
middle of this area is an octagonal tower, from
which the ranges of cells extend on every side
like radii, and from which the passages lead-
ing to them can all be inspected by a sentinel
posted at the centre. Each cell opens in the rear
into a little yard, 18 feet by 8, surrounded by a
wall 12 feet high. The discipline of this peniten-
tiary is that of solitary confinement, each pris-
oner being kept in his separate cell and yard both
day and night.

There are several theatres in the city, of which
the largest are the Chestnut Street Theatre, the
Walnut Street Theatre, and the Arch Street The-
atre. Peale's Museum, founded by Charles Wil-
son Peale, in
1784, occupies the upper story of
an edifice on the corner of Ninth and George
238 feet long and 70 feet wide. This is
one of the most distinguished institutions of the
kind in the country.

Philadelphia is celebrated for its excellent
markets, having the advantage of various and
abundant supplies, not only from the interior of
its own state, but also of New Jersey', lying across
the Delaware. As a fruit market it is among the
best in the world. The principal market-place
is in Market Street, extending along the middle
of the street from the Delaware to Eighth Street.
There is another market further AV., in the same
street, between Schuylkill Seventh and Eighth
Streets; and there are four or five others in dif-
ferent quarters of the city.

There is quite a number of public squares in
the city, which are generally ornamented with
fine shade trees, and laid out in other respects
with much taste and beauty. Penn Square lies
about in the centre of the city proper, and is
intersected by the two great streets, Market and
Broad Streets, which divide the city into its four
quarters. Independence Square, in the rear of
the old State House, has been referred to above.
Washington Square, not far from this, is a de-
lightful public ground. Franklin Square is be-
tween Race and Vine Streets, having Sixth Street
on the E. In the centre of this square is a beau-
tiful fountain. Other squares are Logan Square,
also between Race and Vine Streets, and Ritten-
house Square, between Walnut and Locust Streets.

Among the principal hotels of Philadelphia
are the United States Hotel, Jones's Hotel,
AArashington House, Columbia House, Congress
Hall, Franklin House, and the Morris House,
all in different parts of Chestnut Street. Besides
these there are the Madison House, the Mer-
chants' Hotel, the Mansion House, the White
Swan Hotel, the Indian Queen, and many other
excellent houses in various parts of the city.

Philadelphia is abundantly suplied with water
from the Schuylkill River. The present water-
works are known as the
Fairmount Waterworks,
the reservoirs being constructed upon the summit
of a small mount which had received that name,
on the western border of the district of Spring
Garden, near the eastern bank of the Schuyl-
kill, and about two miles from the centre of the
city. These works were the first of the kind
erected in this country, and, for simplicity of
design and entire efficiency, are not exceeded by
any that have been since constructed. The
reservoirs, which are
4 in number, occupy about
6 acres upon the top of this mount, at the height
100 feet above the water in the river, and 56
above the most elevated portions of the city.
They are
12 feet deep, lined with stone and
paved with brick, laid upon a bed of clay, irt
strong lime cement, water tight, and are capable
of containing more than 22,000,000 gallons. One
of these reservoirs is divided into three sections,
for the purpose of filtration. The water is forced
up from the river by a power obtained from the
river itself, a dam being thrown across,
1600 feet
in length, and a raceway cut in the solid rock,
400 feet long and 90 feet in width, by which
a machinery of eight water wheels, operating
an equal number of forcing pumps, may be
driven night and day. Each of these pumps will
lift about
1,250,000 gallons into the reservoirs in
24 hours. The machinery is covered by a build-
ing of stone,
238 feet long by 56 feet wide. The
water is carried from the reservoirs to the city in
3 main iron pipes, one 20, another 22, and anoth-

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