Hayward’s United States Gazetteer (1853) page 522

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lish and the Indian should respect the same moral
law, should be alike secure in their pursuits and
their possessions, and adjust every difference by a
peaceful tribunal, composed of an equal number
of men from each race.''

The ground so judiciously selected by its
founder for the site of his new city having been
previously claimed by three Swedish emigrants by
the name of Swenson, under a grant from the
Dutch governor of New York, Penn had to ex-
tinguish their claim by giving them in exchange
a tract of land higher up on the Schuylkill. Late
in the year 1682, assisted by Thomas Holme, a
surveyor, he laid out the city proper on the land
so purchased, with substantially the same outline
and divisions which it now has. When he de-
parted for England, two years afterwards, the
city contained 300 houses and 2500 inhabitants.
On board the ship, he wrote a farewell letter to
his infant colony, replete with his characteristic
benevolence. In this letter he says, “ And thou
Philadelphia, the virgin settlement of this prov-
ince, what service and what travail has there
been to bring thee forth!    0    that    thou    mayst

be kept from the evil that would overwhelm thee;
that, faithful to the God of thy mercies, in the
life of righteousness, thou mayst be preserved
to the end. My soul prays to God for thee, that
thou mayst stand in the day of trial, that thy
children may be blessed of the Lord, and thy
people saved by his power.''

It would seem that, from the first, Penn had
the idea that a large city would be built up on the
site which he had selected. Dr. Prideaux, in his
work on the “ Connection of the Old and New
Testaments,'' after describing the plan of an-
cient Babylon, says, “ Much according to this
model hath William Penn, the Quaker, laid out
the ground for his city of Philadelphia, in Penn-
sylvania ; and were it all built according to that
design, it would be the fairest city in America,
and not much behind any other in the whole
world.'' It is little, now that this beautiful de-
sign has been so happily executed, to say that
posterity honors the judgment of the learned
critic. Philadelphia is undoubtedly one of the
fairest cities in America, or in the world.

In 1699, after an absence of 15 years, during
which time, in consequence of the revolution in
England which drove James II. from the throne,
Penn had been deprived of his authority over
Pennsylvania, and had it restored to him again,
he revisited this country. Having made some
changes in the government, he sailed again for
England in 1701, where he remained until his
death, in 1718. In 1719, the mayor and alder-
men employed Jacob Taylor to stake out the 7
streets of the city, in order to prevent encroach-
ments by building thereon. This year the first
Weekly Gazette was published by Andrew Brad-
ford. In 1727, Benjamin Eranklin started an-
other weekly paper, called “ The Pennsylvania
Gazette.'' In 1738, Benjamin Eranklin instituted
the first fire company in Philadelphia. In 1743,
the first Lutheran Church was built, and the first
Dutch Reformed Church in 1747. In 1749,
agreeably to a suggestion of Dr. Eranklin, a
portion of Second Street, from Market Street to
Chestnut Street, was paved; a horse having been
mired there, and his rider having been thrown
and broken his leg. At this time the city con-
tained about 15,000 inhabitants; and for some
time afterwards Eifth Street might be considered
as its western limit. St. Paul's, the first Episco-
pal Church, was founded in 1760 ; and the same
year, the Pennsylvania Hospital, and also the
first public library, by the influence of
Franklin. In 1773 the first stage coaches were
established to run to New York; the previous
lines having been post wagons. Now came on
that series of events connected with the Ameri-
can revolution, in which this city so largely and
honorably participated. In 1780 the Bank of
Pennsylvania was established, for the purpose of
supplying the army of the United States for two
months, by a subscription of £300,000, by 90 per-
sons; among whom were Robert Morris and
Blair McClennachan, who subscribed £10,000
each. Dr. Eranklin died on the 17th of April,
1790, leaving, among other public benefactions,
£1000 sterling, to be loaned to unmarried me-
chanics, under 25 years of age, upon certain con-
ditions adapted to secure and encourage individ-
ual enterprise and thrift. This constituted the
foundation of the public fund known as the
Franklin Fund, which now amounts to about
$25,000. Dr. Eranklin was born in Boston, Jan-
uary 17, 1706, and became a resident of Phila-
delphia about 1723. His practical wisdom and
philanthropy originated many of its early eco-
nomical improvements, and brought into being
some of its most distinguished literary and hu-
mane institutions. His fame as a man, a patriot,
and a philosopher is an everlasting legacy of
honor to the city of his adoption. His unosten-
tatious grave is in the N. W. corner of the church-
yard of Christ Church, at the corner of Fifth
and Arch Streets ; which is covered with a plain
marble slab resting upon the ground, in strict
accordance with the directions in his will, which
were as follows: “I wish to be buried by the
side of my wife, if it may be; and that a marble
stone, to be made by Chambers, 6 feet long, 4
feet wide, plain, with only a small moulding
round the upper edge, and this inscription —

Benjamin 1

and > Eranklin,

Deborah )

17 8-,

— be placed over us both.'' The only change ne-
cessary to be made was in the figure 8, Prov-
idence having prolonged his life, beyond his
expectations, until

Philadelphia received its charter from the pro-
prietary, October
25, 1701. The government of
the city proper is in the hands of a mayor,
a se-
lect council of 12, and a common council of
20 members. One third of the select and
the whole of the common council are chosen
annually by the people, and the councils elect
the mayor. The aldermen,
15 in number, are
appointed by the governor to act, with the mayor
and recorder, as judges, during good behavior;
and the aldermen act as justices of the peace.
The whole legislative power is in the councils, of
which the select council is the upper house.

The several districts, or liberties, of Philadel-
phia, N. and S. of the city proper, are separate
municipalities; having, at different dates within
a comparatively modern period, received their
respective charters of incorporation. They are
governed each by a body of commissioners, elect-
ed for three years, one third of them being chosen

Philadelphia was the seat of the United States

A Gazetteer of the United States of America by John Hayward.

Hartford, CT: Case, Tiffany and Company. 1853. Public domain

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