Hayward’s United States Gazetteer (1853) page 565

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Sandusky County, O., c. h. at Lower Sandusky.
Lake Erie and St. Lucas co. are on the N., Huron
on the E., Seneca on the S., and Wood co. on
the W. In January, 1820, it was organized.
The land is low and level, and is watered by
Sandusky Bay and River, also by Portage River,
Green, Mud, and Muskalunge Creeks.

Sandwich, Ms., Barnstable co. This town
was granted to Edmund Freeman and others
in 1637. Its Indian name was
Shawme. Sand-
wich is situated on the shoulder of Cape Cod,
and although much of the soil is thin and sandy,
yet there is not a little of an excellent quality. It
is watered by a number of streams, which afford
a good water power, and by numerous ponds,
some of which are large, affording a variety of ex-
cellent fish. The forests afford an abundance of
deer. Sandwich has a good harbor within the
cape, and navigable accommodations in Buzzard's
Bay. There are a number of flourishing villages
in the town. There are in this town several
branches of manufacture, but the most important
is that of the New England Glass Company, who
manufacture annually about $300,000 in value,
of glass, equal in quality, if not superior, to any
manufactured in this country. 63 miles S. E.
fro tn Boston by the Cape Cod Branch Railroad,
and 12 N. W. from Barnstable.

Sandwich, N. H., Carroll co. This town was
originally granted by Governor Benning Went-
worth, in 1763. Sandwich Mountains are a lofty
range, extending N. E., and terminating in Cho-
coma Peak, in Albany. Squam Mountain is of
considerable height. There are other mountains.
The Bearcamp River passes E. into Tamworth;
the W. branch passes through Bearcamp Pond.
There is another pond, not far distant from this,
from which issues Red Hill River, passing S. into
Winnipiseogee Lake. A small stream passes W.
into the Pemigewasset River. About one fourth
of Squam Lake lies in the S. W. corner of Sand-
wich. This is a flourishing town, and its produc-
tions are numerous and valuable. 52 miles N.
from Concord, and about 22 N. W. from Ossipee.

Sandy Creek, Pa., Mercer co. A township sit-
uated between French Creek and Salem town-
ships. 10 miles N. from Mercer.

Sandy Creek, N. Y., Oswego co. Watered by
Little Sandy Creek and other streams, flowing
into Lake Ontario, which bounds it on the W.
Surface undulating: soil sandy loam. 7 miles N.
from Pulaski, and 159 N. W. from Albany.

Sandy Hill, N. Y., c. h. Washington co. 53 miles
N. from Albany. On the E. bank of Hudson
River. The river has a fall of 12 feet in the up-
per part of the village, and at Baker's Falls, 100
rods below, a perpendicular descent of 50 feet.
The place is connected with the Champlain
Canal by a navigable feeder. There are consid-
erable manufactories here, and much more power
to be improved.

Sandy Lake, Pa., Mercer co. This township is
on the E. border of the county. S. from French
Creek township.

San Felipe, Ts., c. h. Austin co.

Sandford, Me., York co. Sandford is watered
by Mousum River. It has a good water power,
and an establishment for the manufacture and
printing of cotton goods. 35 miles W. S. W.
from Portland, and is bounded S. W. by Alfred.

San Francisco County, Ca., c. h. at San Fran-
cisco, includes the peninsula between San Fran-
cisco Bay and the Pacific.

San Francisco, Ca., c. h. San Francisco co.
The entrance to the Bay of San Francisco,
known as the Golden Gate, is about 3 miles wide,
and is formed by a gap or opening, extending 5
or 6 miles through the range of mountains that
runs along the coast of California. Table Hill,
not far from the northern shore of this strait, is
2500 feet high. Opposite the entrance, just as it
opens into the bay, are the Islands of Alcatraz
and Yerba Buena. 30 miles in the distance,
nearly due W., rises the peak of Monte Diablo,
the highest point of the second or interior coast
range, and overlooking every thing between the
ocean and the Sierra Nevada. It is between these
two coast ranges that the Bay of San Francisco
spreads out, extending in a direction E. of S., up-
wards of 50 miles, with a breadth varying from 6
or 7 miles, where it turns S., to near 20 in the
middle, and diminishing to 2 or 3 at the southern
extremity, into which flows the Guadaloupe Riv-
er, on which, and on the shores of the bay, is some
excellent land. At the N., the Bay of San Fran-
cisco communicates by a strait not unlike that of
the Golden Gate, with San Pablo Bay, a basin
of near 15 miles diameter, into which are dis-
charged, through a deep navigable channel com-
ing from the W. and extending in its course into
Susan Bay, the united waters of the Sacramento
and San Joaquin, the two principal rivers of Cal-

The peninsula between San Francisco Bay and
the ocean consists chiefly of barren sand hills.
The city of San Francisco lies just within the
northern point of the entrance into the bay, upon
a deep curve of the shore, and on the sides of
three hills of sand, which rise steeply from the
water, the middle one receding so as to form
a bold amphitheatre.

The Bay of San Francisco was entered by Sir
Francis Drake during his famous expedition to
the Pacific, in 1578, before any settlements, ex-
cept those at St. Augustine, had been formed on
the Atlantic coast of the United States. It was
known to the Spaniards 30 years earlier, but was
neglected till their occupation of Upper Califor-
nia, which commenced in 1769, not long after
which San Francisco was taken possession of,
and was subsequently held by a small garrison,
maintained in a little fort just at the entrance
into the bay, a hamlet of a few houses growing
up on the site of the present city. At the time
of the transfer of California to the United States,
in 1848, and even as late as April, 1849, San
Francisco did not contain more than 30 or 40
houses. But the discovery of gold gave it a sud-
den impulse, and by the 1st of September, 1849,
there were 500 houses, tents, and sheds, with a
population, fixed and floating, of 5000 or 6000.
Streets had been regularly laid out, and already
there were 3 piers at which small vessels could
discharge. New buildings, though of the most
flimsy description, the oldest and most substan-
tial of adobes or dried mud, the rest of boards
and canvas, were held, as well as the city lots,
at the most extravagant prices. The Parker
House, an ordinary frame building, of 60 feet
front, used as a hotel, rented for $110,000 yearly,
and other buildings in like proportion or at rates
still more extravagant. These enormous rents
led to a rapid and immense increase of buildings,
and, notwithstanding the very high prices of
building materials and labor, by the beginning
of 1850, San Francisco had become a real city,

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