Hayward’s United States Gazetteer (1853) page 567

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S by Montgomery and Morgan, and W. by

Sangerfield, N. Y., Oneida co. The Chenango
Biver and Oriskany Creek water this town, the
surface of which is hilly; soil fertile loam, under-
laid by lime. 15 miles
S. from Utica, and 89 N.
of W. from Albany.

Sangerville, Me., Piscataquis co. This beauti-
ful and thriving town is not mountainous, but it
is so elevated between Penobscot and Kennebec
Eivers that the waters of its ponds meet the ocean
by both of those streams. Sangerville is 70 miles
N. W. from Augusta, and is bounded by Dover
on the W. Incorporated 1814.

Sanilac County, Mn., c. h. at Sanilac Mills. E.
part. On the S. W. shore of Lake Huron.

SanJoaquim County, Ca., c. h. at Stockton. On
both sides of the lower course of the San Joa-
quim Eiver.

San Jose, Ca., c. h. Santa Clara co.. 50 miles
from San Francisco, is situated in one of the most
pleasant and healthy valleys in California. It is
well watered, and for 20 miles N. and S. there is
a perfect carriage road, with barely a mould of
earth to lift a wheel. Its advantages for gardens,
fruits, and grains are of the highest order. The
quicksilver mines are about 20 miles S. of this

San Luis Obispo County, Ca., c. h. at San Luis
Obispo. On the coast, opposite the head waters of
the San Joaquim.

San Luis Obispo, Ca., c. h. San Luis Obispo
co. On the coast, half way from Santa Barbara
to Monterey. 200 miles S. by E. from San Fran-
cisco. An unsafe port in winter. It has an ex-
tensive seaboard district about it, but is not well

San Patricio County, Ts., c. h. at San Patricio,
In the S. E. angle, between the Nueces and the
Eio Grande.

San Pedro, Ca., Los Angelos co. The port of
Pueblo Los Angelos, from which it is 27 miles S.
on the Bay of San Pedro, about 80 miles N. W.
from San Diego Los Angelos, is a good farm
ing district, celebrated for its grapes, and was
the former Spanish capital of California.

Santa Barbara County, Ca., c. h. at Santa Bar-
bara. On the coast S. of Cape Conception, to-
wards the southern extremity of the state.

Santa Barbara, Ca., c. h. Santa Barbara co. A
small sea-coast town, pleasantly situated, sur-
rounded by mountains.

Santa Clara County, Ca., c. h. at San Jose.
Around the southernmost waters of San Francisco
Bay. Watered by the Guadalupe, near the head
of which are the quicksilver mines. It contains
one of the best farming tracts in California.

Santa Fe, N. M., c. h. Santa Fe co., and capital
of the territory. The oldest town in the United
States, next to St. Augustine, having been found-
ed in
1580. It is situated on a small tributary of
the Eio Grande called the Chichito, or Eiver of
Santa Fe, a short distance E. of the Eio del
Norte, and is approached from the E. through a
canon or narrow pass of the eastern chain of the
Eocky Mountains, commencing about
25 miles
from the town, and extending 10 or 12 miles in
length, the mountains rising on either side to a
height of 1000 or 2000 feet, in all cases within
cannon shot of each other, and in many places
within point blank musket shot. This continues
to within
12 or 15 miles of Santa Fe.

The elevation of Santa Fe above the level of
the sea is upwards of
6800 feet, higher than the
highest summits of the White Mountains, and the
neighboring peaks to the N. are many thousand
feet higher. On leaving the narrow valley in
which the town stands, varying in width from
1000 feet to a mile or two, and which is cultivated
entirely by irrigation, the country presents noth-
ing but barren hills, utterly incapable, both from
soil and climate, of producing any thing useful.
The river,
5 miles below the town, disappears in the
granitic sands. The houses are of adobes or sun-
dried bricks, in the Spanish style, generally of one
story, and built on a square. The interior of the
square is an open court, and the principal rooms
open into it. These houses are forbidding in ap-
pearance, on the outside presenting the aspect of
a collection of brick kilns, but are comfortable
and convenient within. The thick walls make
them cool in summer and warm in winter. The
better class have good beds, but the inferior peo-
ple sleep on untanned skins. The women appear
to be the most refined and intelligent part of the
population. Those of the upper class dress like
the American women, except that, instead of a
bonnet or cap, they wear, both in doors and
out, a scarf over the head called a reboY.o. The
dress of the lower class of women is' a sim-
ple petticoat, with the arms and shoulders bare,
except what may chance to be covered by the re-
bozo. The men who have means to do so dress
after the American fashion : but by far the greater
part, when they dress at all, wear leather breech-
es tight round the hips and open from the knee
down, shirt and blanket taking the place of our
coat and waistcoat.

The town is dependent on the distant hills for
wood, which is brought in bundles on diminutive
jackasses ; the only animal that can be subsisted
in this barren neighborhood without great ex-
pense. The inhabitants manufacture sugar from
the cornstalk, which sells at
30 or 40 cents per
pound. Grain is always from $2 to
$3 the bush-
el. The fruits of the place, including melons,
the apple, plums, grapes, and apricots, are, all but
the grapes and apricots, very indifferent.

The Eio del Norte itself in this neighborhood
affords, in its narrow, sandy valley, little or no
space for agriculture. On the W. side the banks
are steep walls crowned by layers of basalt, form-
ing the table lands. The E. side is composed of
rolling sand hills rising gradually to the base of
the mountains.

The whole valley of the Upper Del Norte, so
far as it contains any ground cultivated, or capa-
ble of cultivation, may be considered as included
between Taos, in about
36° 30' N. latitude, and
Eio Cristobel, in
33° 30', a distance of about 200
miles in length, but every where very narrow.
Beginning at La Goga, about
30 miles S. from
Taos, the banks of the Del Norte exhibit a nar-
row, sandy bottom, so situated as to admit of ir-
rigation ; this lasts for about
160 miles. The
river itself is scarcely more than
25 yards wide,
and every where fordable.

30 or 40 miles S. of Santa Fe, amid the moun-
tains, on the E. of the Del Norte, are gold wash-
ings, but not very productive or profitable.

The wealth of the country, which is very poor
at best, consists of flocks of sheep and cattle, for
which pasturage is found on the banks of the riv-
ers, but which are exposed to constant depreda-
tions from the Indians.

Santa Rosa County, Fa., c. h. at Milton. It


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