Hayward’s United States Gazetteer (1853) page 615

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ture, grading the grounds, &c.) to $250,000. This
will be taken mostly from the income of the ori-
ginal and building funds, so as to save $150,000
of the building fund, which will be added to the ori-
ginal fund, making a permanent fund of $675,000,
yielding nearly $40,000 per annum.

This income, with all sums received from other
sources, is to be permanently and equally divided
between two great methods of increasing and
diffusing knowledge — the first by publications,
researches, and lectures — the second by col-
lections of literature, science, and art.

The first two volumes of a series entitled
“ Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge,'' in
4to., have been issued ; also several works in a
series of a more popular character, and in 8vo.
form, entitled “ Smithsonian Reports.'' It is
proposed, also, to publish, for still wider circula-
tion, a monthly “ Bulletin.'' Researches in vari-
ous departments of science have been instituted,
or aided by the Institution, and several courses
of free lectures have been delivered.

The library has been commenced. Measures
have been taken, also, for supplying the cabinet
of natural history and the gallery of art.

The Washington Monument, in the same part
of the city, W. of Fifteenth Street, is in progress
of erection, from private subscriptions collected
throughout the Union. The following is the
description of the design, as put forth by the
Monument Association. The rotunda remains
to be built, but the obelisk has already attained
a height of 70 or 80 feet.

“ The design embraces the idea of a grand
circular colonnaded building, 250 feet in diame-
ter and 100 feet high, from which springs an
obelisk shaft, 70 feet at the base and 500 feet high,
making a total elevation of 517 feet above the

“ This vast rotunda, forming the grand base of
the monument, is to be surrounded by 30 columns
of massive proportions, being 12 feet in diameter,
and 45 feet high, elevated upon a lofty base or
stylobate of 20 feet elevation and 300 feet square,
surmounted by an entablature 20 feet high, and
crowned by a massive balustrade 15 feet in

“ The terrace outside of the colonnade is 25
feet wide, and the pronaos, or walk within the
colonnade, including the column space, 25 feet.
The walks enclosing the cella, or gallery within,
are fretted with 30 massive antae, (pilasters,) 10
feet wide, 45 feet high, and 7<i feet projection,
answering to the columns in front, surmounted
by their appropriate architrave. The deep re-
cesses formed by the projection of the antse pro-
vide suitable niches for the reception of statues.

“ This spacious gallery and rotunda, which prop-
erly may be denominated the “ National Parthe-
non,'' is lighted in 4 grand divisions from above,
and by its circular form, presents each subject
decorating its walls in an interesting point of
view, and with proper effect, as the curiosity is
kept up every moment, from the whole room not
being presented to the eye at one glance, as in
the case of a straight gallery.

“Entering the centre pier through an arched
way, you pass into a spacious circular area, and
ascend with an easy grade, by a railway, to the
grand terrace, 75 feet above the base of the mon-
ument. This terrace is 700 feet in circumfer-
ence, 180 feet wide, enclosed by a colonnaded
balustrade, 15 feet high with its base and capping.

“ In the centre of the grand terrace rises the
lofty obelisk shaft of the monument, 50 feet square
at the base, and 400 feet high, diminishing as it
rises to its apex, where it is 40 feet square. On
each face of the shaft is sculptured the four
leading events in General Washington's eventful
career, in
basso rilievo, and above this the shaft
is perfectly plain to within 50 feet of its summit,
where a simple star is placed, emblematic of the
glory which the name of Washington has at-

“ To ascend to the summit of the column, the
same facilities as below are provided within the
shaft, by an easy, graded gallery, which may be tra-
versed by a railway, terminating in a circular
observatory 20 feet in diameter, around which, at
the top, is a lookout gallery, which opens a pros-
pect all around the horizon.

“ In the centre of the monument is placed the
tomb of Washington, to receive his remains should
they be removed thither, the descent to which is
by a broad flight of steps.'' Many states, cities
and corporations have contributed blocks to this
monument, highly ornamented, which form part
of the inside wall, and the inscriptions on which
can be read as one ascends.

The Navy Yard, on the E. branch of the Poto-
mac, about a mile E. of the Capitol, has an area
of 27 acres, enclosed by a substantial brick wall.
Many extensive manufacturing operations for the
supply of the navy are carried on here.

Half a mile beyond the Navy Yard, in the east-
ern section of the city, a mile and a half from the
Capitol, is the Congressional Burying Ground,
containing 10 acres, near the eastern branch,
tastefully laid out and neatly kept.

The arsenal is about one mile S. of the Capitol,
on Greenleaf Point, between the Potomac and
the eastern branch.

Not the least important and interesting of the
public establishments is the National Observatory,
nearly a mile W. of the President's House, near
Georgetown, between Twenty-Third and Twenty-
Fifth Streets. The building is 50 feet square,
and 3 stories high, ornamented with a movable
dome, and provided with the best astronomical

The principal city and county buildings are an
unfinished and shabby City Hall, in which the
courts are held, the County Jail, a large, new build-
ing, 3 stories high, and the Penitentiary, a large
building of freestone, on Greenleaf Point, facing
the Potomac and adjoining the Arsenal grounds.

Columbian College is beautifully situated on
elevated ground, commanding a broad view of
the surrounding country. The college edifice is
5 stories high, 117 feet long and 47 wide.

Washington is separated from Georgetown by
Rock Creek, over which are two bridges. A
bridge a mile long, across the Potomac, leads to
Alexandria, with which also there is steamboat
communication. There are also bridges across
the eastern branch, which, though deep enough
to float a frigate opposite the navy yard, soon
dwindles to a shallow stream. Vessels requiring
14 feet of water can come up to Potomac Bridge.
The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, which commu-
nicates with a local canal extending through the
city S. of Pennsylvania Avenue, opens a com-
munication with an extensive back country; hot
the trade of Washington is almost entirely lim-
ited to the articles required for the consumption
of the city.


A Gazetteer of the United States of America by John Hayward.

Hartford, CT: Case, Tiffany and Company. 1853. Public domain imaae

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