Hayward’s United States Gazetteer (1853) page 672

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excursion to Massachusetts Bay, as related by
Winslow, they anchored at night under Nantasket
Head, and then ran over to the Dorchester shore
at this place, which they called
Squantum, from
the name of the friendly Indian who accompanied

This place is admirably adapted to the enjoy-
ment of sea air and bathing, and to the procuring
of shell and other fish. In the warm season of
the year, it is frequently thronged by visitors from
Boston and the neighboring towns, who obtain
these luxuries in great abundance, and at a mod-
erate expense. On the approach to Squantum
by land, the ride is through some of the finest
farms in the vicinity of Boston. Indeed the ap-
proach to this little peninsula, either hy land or
water, is delightful.


These mineral waters have had a considerable
notoriety ever since the settlement of that por-
tion of Connecticut in which they are situated.
The Indians first made the early inhabitants ac-
quainted with their existence, it having been their
practice, from time immemorial, to resort to them
in the warm season, and to plant their wigwams
around them. They recommended the water as
an eye water; but gave, as their own particular
reason for drinking it, that it “ enlivened their
spirits.'' It is said that, in 1766, Dr. Joseph War-
ren, afterwards General Warren, the patriot, who
fell on Bunker Hill, made a careful examination
of these waters, and had thoughts of purchasing
the land on which they rise, with a view of estab-
lishing himself there.

There are two distinct springs, the medicinal
properties of which are considerably diverse.
One of them, and that which has been longest
known, contains a solution of iron, sustained by
carbonic acid gas; a portion of marine salt; some
earthy substances, and an element called natron,
or native alkali. This spring has been pro-
nounced by chemists to be one of the most effi-
cacious of the chalybeate springs in the United

The other spring, as analyzed by Professor
Silliman in 1810, contains hydrogen gas and sul-
phur in large proportions, and a small propor-
tion of iron.

In the year 1765, an effectual cure occurring of
a most obstinate case of cutaneous disease, which
had baffled all medical skill, very much raised
the reputation of these springs; in consequence
of which they immediately became a place of
much resort for persons afflicted with various
diseases. Within a few years past, it has been
ascertained, as it is confidently believed, that the
use of these waters operates as a thorough and
effectual means of eradicating scrofula from the
human system.

Dr. Willard subsequently carried into execu-
tion the plan of the lamented Dr. Warren, by
building a large hotel for the reception of invalids
and others. This establishment has been con-
tinued, with enlargements and improvements, to
the present time. The situation is one which has
many attractions for the lovers of bold and ro-
mantic scenery ; and affords a most grateful
retreat in summer from the heat, din, and dust of
our large cities and crowded marts of business.
The New London, Willimantic, and Palmer
Railroad, connecting with the Western Railroad
at the latter place, passes by Stafford Springs,
thus making the place easy of access from Bos
ton, New York, and all other places on the prin
cipal routes through New England.


These springs are situated in a wide and beau-
tiful valley among the mountains in the
E. ex-
tremity of Monroe co., the region of the mineral
springs of Virginia. Their temperature is 73°
Fahrenheit. They are celebrated for the tonic
power of their waters, whether used externally
or internally. They are only 17 miles distant E.
from the celebrated White Sulphur Springs.


See Long Branch.


Eighteen miles N. E. from Utica, are on the
West Canada Creek, in the town of Trenton.
These falls are among the most interesting of the
natural curiosities of the U. S. The creek, or
stream, here has its bed, for a distance of two or
three miles, deep in the stratum of dark-colored
limestone, which underlies the soil, and the whole
is so densely embosomed in the primitive forest,
that no token of the long and deep gorge through
which the waters rush is visible till you are on
the very brink. In one place, the banks of this
gulf are about
140 feet in perpendicular height
The average breadth, between the banks, is about
200 feet. Within a distance of two miles, there
are no less than six distinct cascades, interchan-
ging with rapids as picturesque as the falls them-
selves. From the Upper Falls, where the water
pitches over a descent of 20 feet, into a spacious
basin, the river dashes along down its rocky bed
for about a mile, to the second falls, called the
Cascades, consisting of two pitches, with inter-
vening rapids, having a fall of
18 feet. A little
below is the third fail, called the Milldam, from
the regularity and smoothness of the sheet of
water, which here rolls over a precipice of 20
feet. About
40 rods below this are the High
Falls. At this place, the most remarkable fea-
tures of the spectacle are presented. The volume
of the river is separated by rifts in the ledge into
three distinct cataracts, which have a perpendic-
ular fall of
109 feet, from the brink of the preci-
pice to the bed of the stream below. Here, of
course, the ravine has become very deep, and the
lofty walls of bare and shelving rocks on each
side, as seen from the bottom, surmounted and
overhung by their wooded banks, combine with
the triple cataract to present a scene of the wild-
est grandeur. About
70 rods farther down is
the fifth, or Sherman's Falls, which have a de-
scent of nearly
40 feet; and, after a current of
less declivity than the rapids above, the stream
reaches the last of this beautiful succession of
cataracts, at Conrad's Falls, where the pitch is
15 feet; making an aggregate of 312 feet
descent in two miles, including the rapids. The
Falls, at all times interesting, become intensely
so in the season of the annual floods. The path
which the observer must take, in order to obtain
any adequate view of the scene, is found by de
scending a stairway at the lower end of the ra-
vine, to the bottom, and pursuing his course
along the strand, up the stream. This path a
part of the way is easy, and part of the wav it is
more difficult, being for some distance along a
narrow shelf of rocks, upon the immediate verge

A Gazetteer of the United States of America by John Hayward.

Hartford, CT: Case, Tiffany and Company. 1853. Public domain image

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