164 ALBANY COUNTY.
Falls. The first church (E. M.) was built in 1792, 2 midwest of Coeymans Landing. This
church was organized March 1793, Rev. Freeborn Garrison first pastor,1
KIJIEHEIIEAMH—was formed from "VYatervliet, Feb. 26,1803. It lies near the center of the
northern border of the county. Its surface is greatly diversified. In the w. rises the precipitous
wall of the Helderberghs to a height of 800 feet above the general level of the valleys. The central
i part is undulating, and the eastern is occupied by numerous sand ridges. The Normans Kil with
its branches, the Bozen Kil,2 Black Creek, Wildehause Kil, and Hunger Kil, are the principal
streams. The lower course of the Normans Kil in this town is through a narrow ravine, with
steep clayey banks. The soil is light and sandy in the e., and gravelly loam mixed with clay in
the w. A mineral spring is found upon the farm of Wm. McGowan. Hamilton ville, (Guilder-
land p.o.,) formerly known as the. “Glass House,”3 is situated on the old turnpike, 8 mi. w.
of Albany. CUiilderland Center, (p.v.,) locally known as “Bangall,” contains 18 houses.
Himnsville,4 (p.o.,) Knowers ville/ (p.o.,) and Frenchs Mills,6 on the Normans
Kil, are small villages. During the Revolution, a portion of the inhabitants sided with the British;
and the feuds which grew up between families and neighborhoods Lave not yet entirely subsided.7
The Ev. Luth. church (St. Jame’s) was organized Oct. 13, 1787. Heinrich Moeller was the first
KMOX—named from the celebrated Col. Knox—was formed from Bern, Feb. 28, 1822. It is
the n. w. corner town of the county. Its surface consists of a high plateau region broken by a few
small hills. Its eastern part constitutes a portion of the Helderbergh region; but the declivities are
so gradual that they only serve to give to the town a moderate inclination towards the n. and w.
The Bozen Kil, forming a part of the e. boundary, with its tributaries, and the Beaver Dam Creek,
are the principal streams. There are two caves, supposed to he of considerable extent, about If
mi. n. of Knoxville. The soil is principally gravel and clay, with hard pan underneath. Knox¬
ville9 (Knox p.o.) contains 23 houses. W. Township, (p.o.,) E. Township, and
Peoria, on the line of Bern, are small villages. This town was settled by Germans before
the Revolution. During the war the people became divided in politics, and after the defeat of
Burgoyne many of the tory families went to Canada.10 Sami. Abbot and Andrew Brown, from
Conn., settled in town in 1789; and soon after 20 to 30 families came in from the same State.
The first church was a Ref. Prot. D.11
MEW SCOTiiAMB—was formed from Bethlehem, April 25, 1832. It is the central town
of the county. The eastern and central parts are high and rolling, with occasional isolated hills,
and ridges; and the western border is occupied by the Helderbergh Mountains. The principal
streams are Normans Kil, Ylamans Creek, and Coeymans Creek, (or Oniskethau Kil,) and several
of their tributaries. Upon the side of Bennett Hill, in the s. w. part, is a strong sulphur spring.
Near Clarksville are two caves, extending respectively f and J mi. under ground. Streams flow
through each of them. The outlet of Lawsons Lake, in thev. w. part, about 1 mi. from the lake,
falls into a deep cavity and flows J mi. in a subterranean passage, and in its course it receives a
considerable tributary.12 At the northern foot of Copeland Hill, near the same locality, are remark¬
able sink holes, 5 to 8 feet in diameter, and extending down through the soil and lime rock to a
depth of 10 to 20 feet. A subterranean stream connects the bottoms of these cavities.13 The soil
is a gravelly loam mixed with clay. ClarKsville (p. v.) is situated at the foot of the Helder¬
berghs, on Coeymans Creek, and contains 211 inhabitants. Mew Salem (p. v.) contains 27
houses; and lew Scotland (p. v.) 15. fJnionviile, (Union Church p. o.,) Feurifousli,
Since the Revolution, a small number of Indians belonging to
the Oneida tribe lived in this 'town. They removed, but re¬
turned for a short time in 1812. An acct. of £10 was audited in
1792, for building stocks and a whipping post.
1 The census reports 6 churches in town; 3 M. E., R.P.D.,
R. C., and Union.
2 From “ Boos,” angry, because of its rapid descent and severe
3 A glass factory was erected here in 1792; and in 1793 the
State loaned the proprietors £3000 for 8 years,—3 years without
interest and 5 at 5 per cent. In 1796 the project was conceived
of establishing here a manufacturing town, and the ground was
laid out into streets and lots, under the name of Hamilton. To
encourage the project, the company and workmen were exempted
from taxation for 5 years. The works were discontinued in 1815
for want of fuel.—MunselVs Annals, vol. III. p. 157.
4 Named from Christopher Dunn, original owner; locally
known as “ Hardscrabble.”
5 An inn was kept here during the Revolution by Jacob Aker.
It was the seat of a factory in 1800.
6 Named from Abel French, who built a factory here In 1800.
A clothing works was erected here in'1795, by Peter K. Eroeck.
7 The news of Burgoyne’s surrender was celebrated by the
whigs by burning a hollow chestnut tree on a hill. A barrel of
tar had previously been turned down the hollow trunk and
8 A B. P. D. church was formed Dec. 14, 1793. The census
reports, besides those already mentioned, 3 churches; 2 Presb.
and 1 M. E.
9 Knoxville was formerly known as “ Union Street,” and is stilJ
locally called “ The Street.”
10 Capt. Jacob Van Aernden was an active leader of the whigs
of this section during the war.
41 The census reports 6 churches; 3 M. E., B. P. D., Luth., and
42 This cavity has been explored, and in it are found beautiful
stalactites, and thousands of hats clinging to the roof.
13 This passage has been explored, and is found to contain
several, rooms of considerable size. Some years ago a notorious
thief Used this cavity as a depository for stolen goods, and for a