ALLEGANY COUNTY. 169
affording ample accommodations for the inmates, but is destitute of means of ventilation. The
average number of inmates is 57, supported at a weekly cost of $1.03 each. The farm yields a
revenue of $l,000.x
The Genesee Yalley Canal extends s. from the nr. boundary of the co. along Genesee River to
Belfast, thence up the valley of Black Creek to New Hudson, and thence across to the valley
of Oil Creek, and down the valley of that stream to the w. bounds of the co. The N. Y. & Erie
R.R. extends from Steuben co. up Whitney Yalley Creek; thence across to Dyke Creek, and
down the valley of that stream to Genesee River; thence down the Genesee to Belvidere;
thence up Yan Campens Creek to Friendship Village; thence across to the valley of Oil Creek, and
down that stream to the w. bounds of the co. It passes through Almond, Alfred, Andover,. Wells-
ville, Scio, Amity,, Friendship, and Cuba. The Buffalo & N.Y. City R. R. extends through Burns
and Grove, in the n.e. corner of the co. Four weekly newspapers are now published in the co.1
The two western tiers of towns in this co. were included in the Holland Land Purchase, and the
remaining part belonged to the Morris Reserve. Except the eastern tier, they are in the Phelps &
Gorham Purchase. John B. Church became the owner of 100,000 acres of this-tract. His son,
Judge Philip Church, subsequently became thb proprietor of one-half, or 50,000 acres, and the pioneer
settler of the tract at Angelica, in 1802. The settlement of the co. may be said to have com¬
menced with the century. The roughness of the surface, and the superior richness of the lands
further sr., had a tendency to retard the development of this co.; and for many years com¬
paratively little progress was made. The construction of the Genesee Yalley Canal and of the
Erie R. R. gave an impulse to improvement and afforded an opportunity to convey the rich pro¬
ducts of the extensive pine forests to a profitable market. Agricultural improvements have
slowly followed the retreat of the forests; and now nearly one-half of the co. is under improve¬
ment to some extent.
ALFRED—was formed from Angelica, March 11, 1808. A part of Angelica was annexed in
1816. Almond and Independence were taken off .in 1821, a part of West Almond in 1835, and a
part of Ward in 1856. It lies upon the e. border of the co., a little s. of the center. The surface
consists of deep, irregular hills separated by narrow valleys. The highest summits are 500 to 800
feet above the streams. Whitney Yalley Creek flows to the n. e., and Dyke Creek to the s. The
soil upon the hills is a clayey or shaly loam, and in the valleys a gravelly loam. Alfred
Center (p. v.) contains a church, the Alfred Academy and University,2 and 177 inhabit¬
ants ; Bakers Bridge, (Alfred p. o.,) in the N. e. corner, contains a church, flouring
mill, and 134 inhabitants. It is a station upon the Erie Rail Road. Tip Top Sum¬
mit is also a rail road station. The first settlement was made near Bakers Bridge in May,
The Advocate and Whig. In 1856 the Beechers sold to Charles
Horton, who united the paper with The Reporter.
The Republican Era was started at Angelica in 1844 and issued
a short time.
The Republican Era was started at the village of Oramel in
1846 by Horace E. Purdy. Its publication was con¬
tinued by different persons until 1857.
The Cuba Advocate was commenced at Cuba, Oct. 29,1838, by
Isaac C. Sheldon, and was continued several years.
The Political Investigator (mo.) was published at Angelica a
short time in 1848.
The American Banner was commenced at Cuba in Feb. 1855, by
Hatch & Pratt. In July, 1857, the name of the paper
was changed to
The Southern. Tier, and its publication continued byC.
Pratt, M. B. Champlin, editor.
The Almond Herald was commenced at Almond in 1853 by R.
Denton, who published it 1 year, when it was suspended.
In about 6 months it was resuscitated by Melvin Hyde
and Isaac Busby, and appeared under the name of
The Allegany Sentinel. Subsequently it passed irrto the hands
of Pruner & Spencer, by whom the paper was published
until 1856. ,
The Genesee Valley Free Press was commenced at
Belfast in Jan. 1853, by A. N. Cole. In March follow¬
ing, the paper was removed to Wellsville, where the
publication is continued by Mr. Cole.
The Rural Budget was commenced at Wellsville in Oct.
1856, by Richard O. Shant, by whom the publication is
8 The academic part of this institution was incorp. in 1842, and
the university in 1857. The erection of the university building
has been commenced. It is under the charge of the Seventh
Day Baptists. The building occupied by the female department
was burned Feb. 14, 1858.
The Angelica Republican was started in Oct. 1820, by Frank¬
lin Cowdery, and was continued 2 years. In 1827 it was
The Allegany Republican, published by Samuel P. Hull. In
1832 it was changed to
The Angelica Republican and Farmers and Mechanics’ Press,
issued by B. F. Smead. During the same year it was
again changed to
The Allegany Republican and Internal Improvement Advocate,
and published by Peter Cherry. In 1836 it was issued as
TheAngelica Republican and Allegany Whig. It soon after passed
into the hands of Wm. Pitt Angell, who changed it to
TheAngelica Reporter and Allegany Republican. It soon passed
into the hands of Samuel C. Wilson, and was issued for
several years as
The Angelica Reporter. In 1841 it was published by Horace E.
Purdy and Chas. Horton; and in 1844 Mr. Horton be¬
came sole proprietor. In 1856 he purchased The Advo¬
cate and Whig, and published the combined paper as
The Angelica Reporter and Angelica Advo¬
cate and Whig, under which name it is still
The Republican JEgis and Allegany Democrat was published at
Angelica in 1830.
The Allegany Gazette was issued at Angelica in 1840.
The Allegany Co. Advocate was started at Angelica in Jan. 1842,
by Erastus S. Palmer. It was successively issued by
Ellroy & Churchill, Petef S. Norris, and Wm. H. & C. M.
Beecher. In 1852 it was united with The Cuba Whig
and issued as