352 JEFFEESON COUNTY.
Black Eiver, and Chaumont Bays) has a coast line of great length; and the Thousand Islands
present many attractions from their romantic scenery and historical associations. Several small
lakes, filling deep gorges, in Antwerp, Theresa and Alexandria,—one in Eutland, two in Hen¬
derson, Perch Lake in Pamelia and Orleans, and Pleasant Lake in Champion, constitute the other
waters of the co. Iron ore abounds in Antwerp. Traces of lead and copper are found in the
primary region; limestone, capable of a great variety of uses, water limestone and barytes are
also abundant. The Black Eiver enters the co. at Carthage, where commence a series of cas¬
cades and rapids which continue almost to the lake, with a total fall of 480 feet. Indian Eiver
affords water power at half a dozen places, and most of the streams s, of Black Eiver are available
for the same purpose.
The flat country along the St. Lawrence at times is affected by drouth, which is never felt on
the uplands; while the latter are somewhat noted for the great depth of their snows. The mirage
has been frequently seen on the lake, bringing into view places beyond the horizon. One form
of this refraction, in jvhich a line of clear sky appears, along the shore, is almost a constant
attendant upon clear, pleasant days in summer. Waterspouts, attended with dark clouds and a
roaring noise, have been seen upon the lake and its bays. In the primary regions the intervales
are remarkably fertile, while the ridges are often naked rock. The soil over a part of the sand¬
stone is too thin for cultivation, but the barren region is comparatively limited. The limestone and
slate districts are exceedingly fertile, and particularly adapted to dairying and the raising of
spring grains. Of these, barley, within a few years, has become the most important. Winter
wheat is raised less than formerly; oats, corn, rye, and peas are staple products. For many years
manufactures have received much attention and employed a large amount of capital. They
consist of iron from the ore, castings, machinery, cotton and woolen fabrics, paper, leather, and
flour, and have been chiefly carried on along the line of the Black Eiver, and in Antwerp,
Theresa, Philadelphia, Adams, and Ellisburgh. Eafting, shipbuilding, and lake commerce form
prominent pursuits at several points along the St. Lawrence.
Upon the erection of the co., in 1805, Watertown was selected for the co. seat.1 A com¬
bined courthouse and jail was erected in 1807 and burned in 1821. Soon after, separate build¬
ings, of stone, were erected, which are ■still in use. In 1816 a fireproof clerk’s office was built,
and occupied until 1831, when the present one was erected. The jail having become unfit for use,
and having been officially complained of, a writ was issued, Dec. 1, 1848, by the Supreme Court,
ordering its immediate improvement.2 This led to the erection of an additional building, with ex¬
cellent arrangements for both the security and convenience of prisoners. The first poorhouse was
erected on the Dudley Farm, in Le Eay, about 5 mi. n. of Watertown, in 1825; and it was used
until 1833, when the present spacious buildings were erected in Pamelia, 1 mi. below Watertown.
In 1852 a special act was passed for the supervision of the poor in this co.
The first newspaper in the co., called the “ American Eagle,” was established at Watertown,
in 1814, by Henry Coffeen. Its name was soon after changed to the “American Advocate.”3
The Herald of Salvation, semi-mo., (Univ.) was commenced in
1822 by Rev. Pitt Morse, and continued 2 years.
The Watertown Freeman was established in 1824, and continued
until 1833, and was then changed to
The Democratic Standard. In July, 1835, it was united with the
Watertown Eagle, and became
The Eagle and Standard.
Thursday’s Post was commenced in 1826 by Theron Parsons &
Co.; and in 1828 sold to Henry L. Harvey, who changed
The Register. It was afterward united with the Genius of Phi¬
lanthropy, and in 1830 it became the
Watertown Register and General Advertiser. In 1-831 it passed
into the hands of B. Cory, and in 1835 it was changed
North American. It was published by J. Huxton a short time,
and afterward by H. S. Noble, by whom in 1839 it wa3
The Watertown Register.-. In 1843 Joel Green became proprietor,
and changed it to
The Black River Journal, and continued it until 1846.
The Genius of Philanthropy was started in 1828 by, Henry L.
Harvey, and was afterward united with The Register.
The Censor was started at Adams in 1828, by Theron Parsons,
and was soon after removed to Watertown. In 1830,
Enoch E. Camp became its proprietor, and changed it to
The Anti-Masonic Sun. Shortly after, Dr. R.Goodale, becoming
proprietor, changed it to
The Constellation, and continued it until 1832, when it passed
into the hands of Abner Morton, who published
The Jefferson Reporter until 1834 It was then discontinued.
The commissioners appointed for the selection of the co. seat
by the Oov. and Council were Matthew Dorr, David Rodgers,
and John Van Benthuysen. The first court and the first hoard
of supervisors met at a schoolhouse on the site of the present
Univ. Church. The first co. officers were Augustus Sacket,
First Judge ; Joshua Bealls and Perley Keyes, Judges ; Thomas
White, Lyman Ellis, Wm. Hunter, and Ethni Evans, Assistant
Justices; Henry Coffeen, Cleric; Abel Sherman, Sheriff; Benj.
Skinner, Surrogate and Treasurer; and Hart Massey, Ambrose
Pease, and Fairchild Hubbard, Coroners. At the time of its
erection most of the taxes of the co. were paid by non¬
In 1807 the jail liberties were first established, which were
so extraordinary as to demand a passing notice. “ They covered