Gazetteer of New York, 1860 & 1861 page 376
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“Black River country” spread through Mass. and Conn., and within the next ten years the country
between Tug Hill and the river rapidly filled up with a laborious, intelligent, and enterprising
population. A romantic project of settlement formed by refugees of the French Revolution, in
which Arcadian dreams of rural felicity were to be realized, was abandoned after a short expe¬
rience of the real hardships of pioneer life. Except an expensive but ineffectual attempt by Brown
to settle bis tract, toward the close of the last century, little improvement was xrfade
e. of the river
until about 1820; and this section has at present less than one-fourth of the population, and a still
less proportion of the wealth, of the co. A systematic effort at settlement of the extreme w. part
was first made in 1840-46, under Seymour Green and Diodate Pease, agents of the Pierrepont
estate. Much of this region is still a wilderness.

CROGHA1Y1—was formed from Watson and Diana, April 5, 1841, and a part of New Bremen
was taken off in 1848. It lies E. of Black River, in the sr. part of the co. The surface has an in¬
clination toward the w. and sr., and in the central and e. parts it is broken and billy. Oswegatchie
and Indian Rivers rise in the town and flow northerly into Dianaand Beaver River forms a portion
of its s. boundary. In the e. part of the town are several lakes. The soil is light and sandy, and
along the river intervales it is moderately fertile. The town is thinly settled along Black and
Beaver Rivers, but in the sr. and E. it is still a wilderness. Croghan, (p.o.,) on Beaver River,
and laumburg,2 (p. o.,) in the w. part of the town, are small villages. Indian River,
(p. o.,) sr. of the center of the town, and Belfort, on Beaver River, are hamlets. Settlement
commenced before 1830, under P. S. Stewart, agent for Le Ray. Many of the settlers are French
and Germans. There are 5 churches in town

DEIMARK3—was formed from Harrisburgh, April 3, 1807. It lies w. of Black River, on
the sr. border of the co. Its surface descends to Black River on the e. by a succession of irregular
terraces. Deer River flows through the town, and .upon its cohrse are several falls, affording an
abundant water power. The High Falls, one mi. below Copenhagen, descend 160 feet, at an angle
of about 80°, and are celebrated for their picturesque beauty. Kings Fall, 2 mi. below, has a
descent of about 40 feet. The e. part of the town is covered with deep deposits of drift. Near tho
mouth of Deer River are extensive flats; and Black River is bordered by a cedar swamp. The
soil is very fertile. Copenhagen,4 (p.v.,) on Deer River, in the w. part, contains 3 churches
and several manufactories
.5 Pop. 505. Denmark, (p. v.,) in the e. part, contains about 50
houses; aud Beer River, (p.v.,) on the river of the same name, 2 mi. from its mouth, 35
The first settlement was made in 1800, by Jesse Blodget.7 The census reports 6 churches in town.8

MAMA—was formed from Watson, April 16, 1830, and a part of Croghan was taken off in
1841. This is the extreme n. e. town in the co. Its surface is level, or gently rolling. In the E.
part are 2 isolated hills, 300 to 500 feet above the surrounding surface. The principal streams are
Oswegatchie and Indian Rivers and their branches. Bonaparte
9 and Indian Lakes, in the n. part,
and Cranberry, Legiers, and Sweets Lakes, in the e., are the principal bodies of water. The greater
part of this town is yet a wilderness. The soil is light and sandy. Iron ore is found in the sr. and
e. parts, and coarse, crystalline marble, of a sky-blue tint, on the hanks of Indian River, near
Natural Bridge. Sterlingbusli,11 (p.v.,) in the w. part, contains 15 houses; and Harris-
ville 12. Blanchards Settlement (Diana Center p. o.) is in the s. part. Diana is a p. o.,
and Alpiua12 is a hamlet. There are 2 churches in town, (Bap. and M. E.,) hut no church edifice.

GREIC413—was formed from Watson, April 5,1828, as “Brantingham.,> Its name was changed
Feb. 20, 1832. It is the s.
e. corner town of the co. Its surface is rolling in the w., hut it is
broken, rocky, and in some places hilly, in the
e. The principal streams, all tributaries of Black
River, are Moose River, Otter, Stony, and Fish Creeks, and Cole and Fall Brooks. The scenery

Crary, Robert Howe, Asa Pierce, Ichabod Parsons, Lewis Graves,
Jonathan Barker, J. Rich, and Andrew Mills.

6 Bap., organized in 1810, Cong., M. E., Univ., and 2 Union.

10 Bonaparte Lake was so called in honor of Joseph Bonaparte,
who built a log house upon its banks, for the accommodation of
himself and friends while upon hunting and fishing excursions,
during his stay at his summer residence at Natural Bridge.

H Formerly called “ Louisburg.” It owes its origin to an iron
furnace built here in 1833.

i2 An iron furnace was built here in 1847 by Suchard t Far-
vager, Swiss capitalists, and the place has grown up around it.

I8 Named from the late John Greig, of Canandaigua, who owned
large tracts of land in the town.


Named in honor of Col.--Geo. Croghan. It is locally pro¬
nounced “ Crofganits proper pronunciation is “ Crawn.”


8 Evan. Asso. or Germ. Meth., Ref. Prot. D., M. E., and 2 R. C.


This town embraces Township No. 5, or Mantua, of the
Eleven Towns.


Originally called “Hungers Mills" from Nathan Hunger,
one of the early settlers.


About 1830 the manufacture of cordage was commenced here


on an extensive scale; but it has recently been abandoned.


T Abel French was the first settler at this place, and it was


originally known as “ Frenchs Mills.”


* Among the early settlers were Freedom Wright, Major J.


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