Gazetteer of New York, 1860 & 1861 page 419
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1708.—All vacant lands on Long Island shore, between high and
low water marks, between the Navy Yard and Red Hook,
were granted.


Although the city forms hut a single organization, it has localities known by distinct names
as villages or neighborhoods; but the number of these is gradually becoming obliterated as popula¬
tion increases ; and most of them will soon be known only to the student of history.1
Of the several islands, other than Manhattan, comprised in New York City and co., those in the
harbor are owned by the General Government and occupied as military posts, and those in the
East River are chiefly owned by the city and devoted to charitable and penal institutions.2

1780.—Land under water, 400 ft. wide, between junction of
Charlton and Washington Sts. aril Mai-ketfield St. on
the Hudson, and from Whitehall to Houston St. on the
East River, was secured. These grants, with the pre-
- vious ones, comprise 209J acres.

1807.—Land under water, 400 ft. wide, extending northward
from previous grant 4 mi. on the Hudson and 2 mi. on
the East River, was granted.

1826.—The same was extended to Spuyten Duyvil Creek on the
w. and Harlem R. on the

1821.—Land 600 ft. wide in front of the Battery was added.

1837.—Land under water on the w. to 13th Avenue line was

1852.—Land under Harlem R. from such exterior line as the
corporation might fix, to the shore, was granted. Other
extensions were authorized in 1828, 1830, 1835,1846.
Assem. Doc. 8, 1856.

In 1811 the exterior line was fixed by the commissioners for
laying out the city into streets; but changes of their plan
and the extension of streets led to encroachments upon the
channel, requiring remedial measures. An act was accordingly
passed, March 30,1855, appointing 5 commissioners in pursuance
of advice of a Senate committee of the year previous, and these
persons, associating with themselves several officers of'the
General Government, proceeded to examine the subject. The
harbor and shores were surveyed and sounded,- the effects of
tides and currents examined, maps constructed, and lines for
the limitation of piers and bulkheads recommended, and mostly
confirmed by law, April 7,1857. These surveys were performed
by 10 parties of about 200 persons from the TJ. S. Coast Survey)
at a cost of $85,000. The reports of the commission embrace a
large amount of statistical and historical information.—
8, 1856; Sen. Doc. 40,126, 1857.

The first dock was built from Broad to Dock St., on the East
River. There are now 66 piers on the w. and 78 on the
e. side
of the city. A part of these are built and owned by the corpora¬
tion, others by individuals or companies, and others jointly by
the city and individuals. Of the last class the city pays one-third
the cost of building and receives one-half of the revenues. The
city owns 39 piers and 7 half-piers on the Hudson, and 31 piers
and 20 half-piers on the East River,—the former valued at
$1,428,500, and the latter at $1,829,000. They are under the
care of the Street Department.

The wants of commerce led to the erection of a lighthouse on
Sandy Hook, at the expense of the colony of New York, in 1762,
which was supported by special duties upon commerce until
ceded to the 0. S. Feb. 3,1790. The commissioners for its erec¬
tion were John Cruger, Philip Livingston, Leonard Lispenard,
and Wm. Bayard. It was burned in 1776. Within the Hook are
lights at Princes Bay, Fort Tompkins, Robins Reef, and White¬
hall Landing, and numerous buoys to mark the channels.'

The tide enters at Sandy Hook at 7h. 29m. past the moon’s
southing, and rises at Governors Island from 2.2 to 6.1 ft., the
mean rise being 4.3 ft. The harbor was frozen over in 1780, and
again in 1820. On the former occasion persons passed on the
ice to Staten Island. It sometimes happens that the Hudson
and East Rivers will be closed for a few hours in intensely cold
seasons, and people have on these occasions rashly attempted to
cross; but the occurrence is not common.

1 The following is a list of the principal of these localities:—

Blooming dale, on Broadway, between 100th and 110th
Sts., 7 mi. from the City Hall, presents a very neat appearance,
and consists mostly of suburban dwellings. It is the seat of an
orphan and a lunatic asylum,—the latter forming a branch of
the N. Y. Hospital. It was called by the Dutch
Dal ”
—Flowery Yalley.

Car mans ville, on 10th Av. above 155th St., named from
families named Carman, former owners of the adjoining lands,
is chiefly made up of country seats.

Corlaers Hook, at the angle in the East River near
Grand St., named from Arent Yan Corlaer, was called by the
Indians “ Neehtank.”

Hominies Hook lies on the Hudson, between Duane and
Canal'Sts., embracing 62 acres. It was acquired by ground brief
from Stuyvesant July 4,1654, and was afterward granted to the
English Church.

Fort Wasiiington, (Washington Heights p. o.,) a short
distance above Carmansville, is an elevated site, once fortified,
and now occupied by fine dwellings. The Deaf and Dumb Asy¬
lum is located near this place.

Crreenwiek, now merged in the city, was 3 mi. above the
City Hall, ou the Hudson. It was named by Capt., afterward
Eii Peter, Warren, who owned it. The Indian name was
“ Sapokanigan.” The N. Y. State Prison was formerly located

Harlem (p. o.) lies between 8th Avenue and East River,
above 106th St. The principal business- is on 3d Avenue. It
has several churches, important manufactories of India rubber,
chemicals, candles, ale, beer, carriages, and row boats, and
several private schools.

Kings Harden, west of Broadway, between Fulton and
Reade Sts., is now partly held by Trinity Church and leased.

Eispenards Meadows was an irregular tract on both
sides of West Broadway from Reade to near Spring St., and along
Canal St. from the Hudson to Orange St.

Manliattanville, (p.o.,) on the Hudson, between 125th
and 132d Sts., w. of 9th Avenue, contains a convent, Catholic
college, and manufactories of iron, paint, and refined sugar.

Strykers Bay, on the Hudson, at 96th St., is a E. E.

Tubby Hook lies on the Hudson, one-half mi. s. of
Spuyten Duyvil Creek.

Turtle Bay is on the East River, 2 mi. n. of Corlaer Hook."
Its name is a corruption of the Dutch “Deutel Bay,” or WTedge

Yorkville, on the east side of Central Park, extends to
the East Rjyer, from 79th to 90th Sts.

2 Governors Island was formerly called “Nutten
and by the Indians “Pag-ganck.” It lies 1,066 yards
e. from the Battery, and contains 72 acres. It is separated
from Long Island by Buttermilk Channel, formerly shallow,
but now Of sufficient depth for the largest ships. This island
was bought by Gov. Van Twilley, and has always been reserved
for public defense. Quarantine was located here from 1794 to

1797. In the settlement of accounts with the IJ. S., New York
undertook to erect fortifications here as payment for her pro¬
portion of the expenses of the Revolution. Jurisdiction was
ceded to the U. S. Feb. 15,1800, with Fort Jay, then partially
erected. By the authority of an act passed March 26, 1794,
£30,000 were expended by the State in fortifications, under the
supervision of Geo. Clinton, Matthew Clarkson, James Watson,
Richard Yarick, Nicholas Fish, Ebenezer Stevens, and Abijah
Hammond. A further sum of £20,000 was granted April 6,
1795, to complete the works on this and “
Oyster” (now Ellis)
Islands. Castle William (named from Gen. Williams of the
N. Y. Militia) is a round tower on the w. shore of the island, 600
feet in circumference and 60 feet high, mounting 80 casemate
and 40 barbette guns. The land side is open, and a covered
way leads to the works in the center of the island. Fort Co¬
lumbus is a star-shaped work of 5 points on the summit of the
island, mounting 105. guns; and South Battery, fronting But¬
termilk Channel, has 13 guns. These works from 1830 to 1858
cost $285,897; and they are adapted to a garrison of 800 men.
The island is used as a receiving station for newly enlisted
troops, and a school for instructing boys in music.. About 60
lads of 14 years and- upward are usually under instruction
upon the drum, bugle, and other instruments.

Bedloes Island, 2,950 yards s. w. from the Battery, was
named from Isaac Bedloe, the patentee under Gov. Nicoll. It
was known for some years as
“ Kennedys Island.” It was
ceded to the U. S. in 1800, having been previously used for
quarantine purposes. It is now occupied by Fort Wood, erected
in 1841 at a cost of $213,000, on the site of a fort built about
the beginning of the century. It mounts 77 guns, and accom¬
modates a garrison of 350 men. During several months in
1849 it was used by the Commissioners of Emigration as

Ellis .Island, formerly known as “ Oyster,” “Bucking,”
and “ Gibbet” Island, lies 2,050 yards s.w. of the Battery, and
is occupied by Fort Gibson, a work built in 1841-44, at a. cost of
$5,096, mounting 15 guns and requiring a garrison of 80 men.
The pirate Gibbs and 3 associates were hung here April 22,

' 1831.

Blackwells Island is a long, narrow island in the
East River, extending from 51st to 88th Sts., and containing
120 acres. It was named from the Blackwell family, who
owned it for a hundred years or more. It is now owned by the
city corporation, and is the seat of various penal and charitable
institutions. This island was formerly called “
Manning Island,”
from Capt. John Manning; and by the Indians it was named
“ Minnahanock.” It was patented to Gov. Yan Twiller, and
continued private property until 1828, when it was sold by
James Blackwell to the city for $30,000. In 1843 the city paid
$20,000 more to perfect the title.

Wards Island, named from Jasper and Bartholomew
Ward, former proprietors, extends along the East River, oppo
site New York, from 101st St. to 115th St., and contains 200
acres. It was formerly called “
Great Barcut” or “ Great Barn”
Island, and by the Indians was named “ Ten-ken-as.” It was


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