Gazetteer of New York, 1860 & 1861 page 518
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tially modify the soil of that region. The-marshes are generally composed of beds of black muck and
other vegetable matter, and form the richest kind of natural meadow when drained and cultivated.

Agriculture, manufactures, and commerce about equally engage the attention of the people.
Stock raising and dairying are the principal branches of agriculture; spring grains and wool are also
extensively produced.1 The commerce is mostly concentrated at Oswego City, and is carried on by
means of the lake, the Oswego Canal, and the
r. r. The manufactures consist of flour, lumber,
barrels,2 starch, and a variety of other articles. The amount of flour annually manufactured is greater
than in any other co. in the State. The principal mills are at Oswego City, Fulton, and vicinity.

The Oswego Canal, connecting Lake Ontario with the Erie Canal at Syracuse, is 38 mi. long, and
for most of the distance is formed by the slackwater navigation of Oswego River. Oneida Lake and
River also form apart of the internal navigable waters of the State, connecting with the Oswego Canal
at Three River Point and with the Erie Canal at Higginsville. The Oswego & Syracuse R. R. con¬
nects with the New York Central R. R. at Syracuse. The Watertown & Rome R. R. enters the
co. in the
n. e. corner, and passes through Williamstown, Albion, Richland, and Sandy Creek.

This co. is divided into two jury districts,3 the courts being held respectively at Pulaski Tillage
and Oswego City.1 At the former place a brick building, including a courthouse and jail, was
erected in 1820, and at the latter a wood courthouse about the same time.4 A stone jail was
erected in the city in 1850, and a fireproof co. clerk’s office in 1851.5 The co. poorhouse is located
upon a farm of 60 acres in the town of Mexico. It is an old building, and is poorly adapted to its
purpose. The average number of inmates is about 50. An asylum for insane paupers is in process
of erection adjacent to the poorhouse. The Oswego Orphan Asylum, located at Oswego City, is in
part a co. institution. All the children of the inmates of the poorhouse between the ages of 4 and
6 years are supported at the Orphan Asylum at the co. expense.6

Two daily and 5 weekly papers are published in the co.7

The Oswego Gazette and Advertiser. In 1828 it was sold to Wm.

C. Shope, who published it as
The Oswego Advertiser until 1829. It then passed into the hands
of the late Dr. Burdell, of Cunningham notoriety, who
changed its name to
The Freeman’s Herald, and continued it 1 year. It was then
suspended for 2 years, and revived in 1832 by John Q.
Adams, by whom it -was published as
The National Republican 1 year, and was then discontinued.
The Oswego Democratic Gazette was published a short time in
1830 by James Cochran.

The Oswego Free Press was published hy Richard Oliphant from
1830 until 1834, and by G-eo. G. Foster as
The Oswego Democrat until 1835, when it was discontinued.

The Oswego Observer wras started in Feb 1835, hy Bailey &
Hawks, and continued until the latter part of 1836.
The Commercial Herald was published at Oswego by Hull &
Henry from 1837 to 1843.

The Oswego Patriot was published at Oswego during the Patriot
War of 1838-39 hy John Bonner and John Cochrane,
member of the 35th and 36th Congress from the 6th
district. (City of New York.)

The Oswego County Whig was founded in 1838 hy Richard Oli¬
phant, and sold to Daniel Ayer in 1844. In 1847 C. D.
Brigham became proprietor, and changed its name to
The Oswego Commercial Times. In Nov. 1848, Janies N. Brown
became the publisher; and in Feb. 1854, he was suc¬
ceeded by Winchester
& Fergerson, by whom the Os¬
wego Journal was purchased and united with it, and
the combined paper was issued as
The Weekly Times and Journal. In 1857 it was changed to
The Oswego Times, under which name it is still pub¬
lished by J. Tarbell.

The Oswego Daily Advertiser, the first daily in the co., was
issued in 1845 in connection with The Whig, and was
continued until 1847, when its name was changed to
The Oswego Daily Commercial Times. It was published in con¬
nection with The Commercial Times until 1854, when it
was changed to

The Oswego Times and Journal. In 1857 it was changed again

The Oswego Daily Times, and is still issued by J.

The People’s Journal was started at Oswego in March, 1849, by
O’Leary & Dean, and the next
year it was sold to L. A.
Winchester. In 1851 it passed into the hands of Sum¬
& Poucher, who started •

The Oswego Daily News in connection with it. The following
year L. A. Winchester again became proprietor, and
changed the name of tbe daily to
The Oswego Daily Journal. In 1854 the two papers were united
with the Daily and Weekly Times.

The Pulaski Banner was commenced in April. 1830, at Pulaski,
and published by Nathan Randall until 1832; by A. A.
Mathewson and G. G. Foster until 1833; and by James
Gedd until 1834, when it was suspended. In 1836 it
again appeared, as


The first settlers of the co. were principally engaged in the
manufacture of lumber and potash. Wheat was once a staple
production; but since the commencement of the ravages of the
midge it has given place to the coarser grains.


Barrels to the amount of 1,500,000 are annually manufac¬
tured for the Oswego flour mills and the Syracuse salt works.


The eastern district comprises the towns of Albion, Amboy,
Constantia, Hastings, Mexico, New Haven, Orwell, Parish, Re'd-
field, Richland, Sandy Creek, West Monroe, and Williamstown;
and the western, the towns of Granby, Hannibal, Oswego, Pa¬
lermo, Schroeppel, Scriba, Volney, and the city of Oswego.


3 The city soon outgrew the first courthouse, and the courts
for many years were held in the city hall. They are now held
In Mead’s Hall, on E. Bridge St. The,old courthouse for several
years was used as a schoolhouse; but recently it has been re¬
moved, and converted into a Sunday school chapel for the Church
of the Evangelists, where 500 children receive religious instruc¬
tion. A-t their last annual meeting the Board of Supervisors
authorized the raising and appropriated $30,000 for the erection
Df a new courthouse in the city, on the e. public square; and the
building i3 now being constructed of Onondaga limestone.


Previous to this time the clerk’s office was kept alternately
in private houses at each of the shire towns for periods of 3


years, the books being carried back and forth at the end of each
period.    7    See    page    524.


The American Farmer, the first newspaper of the co., was
issued at Oswego some time before 1807.

The Oswego Gazette was started at Oswego in 1817 by A. Buckin-
ham. and continued 2 years.

The Osioego Palladium was commenced by John II. Lord and
Dorephus Abbey in 1819. It subsequently passed into
the hands of Mr. Lord, and was continued by him until
1830. John Carpenter then became the proprietor, and
changed its name to
The Oswego Palladium and Republican Chronicle, and continued
it until 1845, when it was sold to B. Brockway, who
again changed it to
Tlie Oswego Palladium. In 1851 he transferred it to
a company, hy whom it was sold in 1853 to Dudley
Failing, the present editor, who sold his interest, in July,
1854, to T. P. Ottowav, the present publisher.

Tlie Oswego Daily Palladium has been issued in
connection with the weekly since 1850.

The Osivego Republican was established March 22,1825, by Wm.
W. Abbey. In 1827 it passed into the hands of Samuel
Osgood, and Iras issued a short time as


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