Gazetteer of New York, 1860 & 1861 page 584
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This county1 was formed from Albany, Feb. 7, 1791. It lies in the
n. angle formed by the junction of the Hudson and Mohawk
Rivers, centrally distant 31 miles from Albany, and contains ?62
sq. mi. Its surface is hilly or undulating in the s. and mountainous
in the
n. Two ranges of mountains traverse the co. from n. e. to
s.w. The Ralmertown or Luzerne Mts., the most eastern of these
ranges, extend from Warren co., through the w. part of Moreau and
Milton and the
e. part of Corinth, into Greenfield, where they termi¬
nate in a series of low, irregular hills. Hudson River breaks through
this range on the n. border of the co. in a deep ravine 3 mi. in
extent. The mountains rise abruptly from the water’s edge to a
height of 800 feet. Their declivities are generally rocky and pre¬
cipitous, and their summits spread out into a broad, rocky upland covered with forests. The
Kayaderosseras Range extend through the n. part of the co. and occupy the greater part of Corinth, ’
Edinburgh, Day, and Hadley. The declivities of these mountains are generally precipitous, and
their summits spread out into broad, rocky uplands broken by ledges and craggy peaks. A group
of isolated hills, 450 feet high, with rounded summits'and terraced declivities, extend through the
w. part of Stillwater and Saratoga. A broad intervale extends along the Hudson, bordered by a
range of clay bluffs 40 to 200 feet in height. From the summits of these bluffs an extensive sand
plain extends westward to the foot of the mountains, covering the greater part of Moreau, Wilton,
N or thuml’erland, Saratoga Springs, Malta, and Clifton Park. The s.w. portion of the co. is rolling
or moderately hilly. .

Hudson River flows nearly 70 mi. along the e. border of the co. It is interrupted by falls
and is crossed by several dams and bridges.2 The Mohawk forms, a portion of the s. boundary.
The Sacandaga, forming the outlet of the principal lakes in the s. part of Hamilton co., flows in a
tortuous channel through Edinburgh, Day, and Hadley. It is navigable for boats and steamboats
of light draught from Fish House, on the border of Fulton cb., to Conklingville Falls, in Hadley, a
distance of 20 mi. Below the falls it flows between high, rocky hills in a series of rapids to the
Hudson. Kayaderosseras River drains the central part of the co. and flows into Saratoga Lake.
The outlet of the lake takes the name of Fish Creek. The other principal streams are Snook Kil;
Anthonys Kil, and Kayawesc Creek. Saratoga Lake is a beautiful sheet of water, 6} mi. long
and 2 broad, situated about 4 mi. s.
e. of Saratoga Springs. Ballston, Round, and Owl Lakes are
small sheets of water in the s. part of the co. Among the mountains and forests in the n. are
numerous other small lakes but little known.

The Kayaderosseras and Luzerne Mts. are both principally composed of primary rocks. A stratum
of crystalline limestone extends along the foot of the mountains; and this is succeeded by Pots¬
dam sandstone. In these formations iron ore has been obtained; but the beds have' been imper¬
fectly explored.2 The rocks in the s. half of the co. belong to the shales and slates of the Hudson
River, group. A large part of the co. is covered with drift deposits, consisting of sand and clay.
The soil among the mountains is a light, sandy or gravelly loam, and is best adapted to grazing; upon
the intervales along the rivers it is a deep, fertile, clayey loam and alluvium; and in the s.w. part
it is a heavy, clayey loam. A strip of light sand occupies the greater part of the two eastern tiers
of towns. The people are chiefly engaged in grain and stock raising. Lumbering, and tanning
are extensively carried on in the
n. part of the co. Considerable attention is also paid to the
manufacture of cotton and woolen goods and paper.4

The county seat is located at the village of Ballston Spa, in the town of Milton.3 The courthouse, a

4 Important manufactures have for many years been carried
on in Milton, Moreau, Mechanicsville, Schuylerville, and Water¬
ford. The manufacture of lumber is chiefly limited to Glens
Falls and Jessups Landing, on the Hudson.

5 The first courthouse was located 2 mi. s. w. of Ballston Spa.
By act of March 26, 1791,. the sum of £1500 was appropriated
to build a courthouse and jail; and in each of the following two
years £600 was added to the amount.. John Bradstreet Schuyler,
Richard Davis, jr., John Ball, John McClelland, and Jas. Emott,
were appointed commissioners to superintend the erection of the


The origin of the word Saratoga is uncertain. The termina¬
tion “ oga,” or “ aga,” is said to signify
place.” The first part of
the word has been thought to imply “hillside” by some, and
“ place of salt springs” by others,—“ soragh” in some Indian
dialects being the name for salt.


Among the other minerals are agate, chalcedony, chryso-


pyrites, and tufa. A full catalogue of minerals is given by Dr.
John H. Steele in his geological survey of the co.


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