Hayward’s United States Gazetteer (1853) page 192

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of the Maumee on the W. to the outlet of Niag-
ara Eiver on the E., is within a fraction of 270
miles. The width varies from 15 to 50 miles,
the widest part being opposite to Ashtabula eo.,
0. The depth is much less than that of either
of the other great lakes, not exceeding 120 feet,
or 20 fathoms, on an average, and becoming gen-
erally very shallow towards the shores. Its surface,
as ascertained by the engineers of the Erie Canal,
is 555 feet above the Hudson Eiver at Albany,
and 334 feet above Lake Ontario. It receives, at
its extreme N. W. angle, through the Detroit
Eiver or Strait, the influx of the waters from the
great upper lakes, and discharges them at the
N. E. extremity, through the Niagara Eiver, into
Lake Ontario. This lake is the only one of the
series in which a current is supposed to be percep-
tible. From the W., the rivers which come in are
the Maumee, the Eaisin and the Huron; from
the N., the Ouse, or Grand Eiver; and from the

S., Portage, Sandusky, Huron, Cuyahoga, Grand
Conneaut, Cattaraugus, and Buffalo. The waters
of Lake Erie are united with the Hudson Eiver
by the Erie Canal, with the Ohio Eiver by the
Ohio Canal, and with the Wabash, at Terre Haute,
la., by the Wabash and Erie Canal. The Wel-
land Canal opens from Lake Erie a navigable
channel into Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence.
Lines of railroad communication, also, connect it
with Boston, with New York, with Cincinnati,
and, by the way of Detroit, with a point on Lake
Michigan, near to Chicago. This central position
of Lake Erie gives it a greater importance, as a
medium of transportation and travel, than can
ever belong to either of the other great lakes,
notwithstanding much greater impediments to its
navigation, from the shallowness of its harbors,
and the great number of rocks projecting from
its northern shore. The navigation of the lake
becomes dangerous as the stormy season ap-
proaches, and during a part of the winter is
wholly prevented by ice. In the season of com-
merce upon its waters, between 300 and 400 ves-
sels are employed, besides a great number of
steamboats. The principal ports are those of
Buffalo and Dunkirk, N. Y., Erie, Pa., Cleveland,
Sandusky, and Toledo, O.

Error Mount, Me., is situated in the N.E. part
of Somerset co.

Escambia River, Ea. and Aa., receives the Co-
necuh, a larger river than itself, and flows into
Pensacola Bay.

Escatawpa Creek, Aa. and Mi. This stream
rises in Washington co., Aa., flows in a S. S. W.
direction, and enters the Pascagoula Eiver near
its mouth, in Jackson co., Mi.

Esconawba River, Mn. This large river drains
the N. E. interior of Marquette co., flows S. E.,
and empties into the Little Bay de Noquet.

Esopus Creek, N. Y., a fine mill stream, rises in
Ulster co., flows S. E. to the town of Marbletown,
whence it flo ws N. E. until its entrance into the
Hudson, at the village of Ulster.

Espiritu Santo Bay, Ts. This bay, which is
enclosed by narrow islands, extends from Nueces
Eiver on the S. W. to Matagorda Bay on the N. E.

Espiritu Santo Pass, Ts. A narrow passage
between two islands, and leading into Espiritu
Santo Bay.

Establishment Creek, St. Genevieve co., Mo.,
flows N. E. into the Mississippi Eiver.

Etowah River, Ga., one of the two branches
which unite in Eloyd co. to form the Coosa.

Eustis, Lake, Marion co., Ea. A small body of
water lying in the E. part of the county, S. from
Lake Griffin.

Eutaw Springs, S. C-, a small S. branch of San-
tee Eiver, is famous for the battle fought on its
borders, Sept.
8, 1781, between Greene, American
general, with a loss of
555, and Stewart, British
general, with a loss of 1000.

Fabius River, Mo., rises in Io. and Mo., and
after a course of about 100 miles, enters the Mis-
sissippi in Marion co., Mo.

Fairlee Lake, Yt. See Eairlee.

Falcon Islands. Two or three small islands lying
in Long Island Sound, off the coast of Ct.

Fall Creek, N. Y., rises in Cayuga co., and
enters Cayuga Lake, near the village of Ithaca,
in Tompkins co. This stream has several beau-
tiful falls, which afford excellent water power.
Those near Ithaca are particularly interesting.
An artificial tunnel, through which there is a
passage for visitors, has been constructed here,
affording the most charming views imaginable.

Fall Creek, la., rises in the N. W. part of Henry
co., flows S. W., and empties into the W. fork of
White Eiver at Indianapolis, Marion co.

Fall Creek, On., flows N. N. W. into Lewis
Eork, of Columbia Eiver.

Fall River, On. This river rises, by two widely-
spread forks, in the Blue and Cascade Mts., flows
in a northerly direction, and empties into Colum-
bia Eiver.

Fall River Hill, Eall Eiver, Ms. Height 259 ft.

Falling Spring Rivulet, Ya. This tributary of
Jackson's Eiver rises 20 miles S. W. from Warm
Spring. It has a perpendicular fall of 200 feet,
and a person may walk between the water and
the rock without being wet.

Falls of Niagara. See Fashionable Resorts, &c.

Farm River, Ct. It rises in a pond on the
border of Middlesex and New Haven counties,
flows S. W., and empties into Long Island Sound.

Farmington River, Ms. and Ct. This river rises
in Hampden and Berkshire counties, Ms., flows S.
E. and N. E., across Litchfield and Hartford coun-
ties, Ct., and empties into the Connecticut Eiver.

Eausse Riviere, Lake, Mo., was the bed of the
Mississippi until about
1714, when the river took
a shorter course, and, filling up the old channel
near its junction with the new, left the remainder
a large lake. It is bordered with fine farms of a
very fertile soil.

Fay's Mountain, Westborough, Ms. Height
707 feet.

Federal Point, N. C. The S. extremity of New
Hanover co., jutting into Cape Eear Eiver.

Fenahollowa Aim-, Madison co., Ea. This is a
small stream flowing in a south-westerly direc-
tion into the Gulf of Mexico.

Ferrand River, Vt. This river rises in Avery's
and Warner's Gores, waters the towns of Morgan
and Wenlock, and unites with Clyde Eiver in

Fifteen Mile Falls, Vt. See Lunenburg.

Finley's Lake, N. Y., lies in the town of Mina,
Chatauque co.

Fire Islands, N. Y. These small islands lie
opposite the town of Islip, in the Great S. Bay
of Long Island.

Fireplace Bay, Brookhaven, Suffolk co., N. Y.,
is a curvature of the Great S. Bay of Long Island.

Fire Steel River, Mn., rises in the W. part of
Houghton co., and flows N. W. into Lake Superior.

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