Hayward’s United States Gazetteer (1853) page 196

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tains, and presenting a most picturesque variety
of bold and beautiful forms, and dotted with
islands of every shape and size, said to equal in
number the days of the year. The water is of
such extraordinary clearness and transparency
that the bottom, of yellow sand, may be seen at
depths of
30 and 40 feet. The reflected images
from the shining bosom of the lake, of the sur-
rounding hills and mountains, and of the hun-
dreds of islands all bearing upon their margins,
or their summits, clusters of graceful trees and
shrubbery, added to other features of a bolder and
more striking character, render this one of the
most delightful resorts for those who have an eye
for beautiful scenery.

The village of Caldwell is pleasantly situated
at the S. W. end of the lake, and contains
between 7 and 800 inhabitants. The Lake
House, in this village, is a spacious and con-
venient hotel, situated within a few rods of the
steamboat landing, and designed especially for
the convenience of travellers and parties of
pleasure, who find this a most grateful resort, at
all times, during the summer season. Erom this
point a steamboat runs daily, during the season
of travelling, to the southern extremity of the
lake, where the passengers find stages to convey
them, about 4 miles, to Ticontfcroga, on the
western shore of Lake Champlain. There are
several localities on the shores of this lake, which
are interesting from their historical associations.
The position of the lake, as forming a part of the
most feasible route, in former times, between the
navigable waters of the St. Lawrence and the
North River, gave it much importance as a
channel of communication to be commanded
and defended by either power, which, in the
changing fortunes of war, might come into
possession of it. Fort William Henry, near the
S. shore, the remains of which are still visible,
was garrisoned by the English, in 1757, with a
force of 3000 men. It was assaulted by the
French army, of 10,000 men, under the Marquis
de Montcalm, and compelled to capitulate. It
was then razed to the ground by Montcalm, and
, never afterwards rebuilt. From this point Gen-
eral Abercrombie, with 15,000 men, embarked, in
1768, to attack Fort Ticonderoga. Sabbath-day
Point is a projection from the western shore of
the lake, about 24 miles from Caldwell, where a
party of the English landed, during the French
war, and were all killed by the Indians. Fort
Ticonderoga, at the outlet of the lake, commanded
the approach to it from the N., and was, for a long
time, considered as almost impregnable, until it
was taken from the French, by General Amherst,
in 1759. It was again taken by surprise from the
English, in 1775, by a small party of Americans
from Vermont, commanded by Ethan Allen, but
was retaken two years afterwards by General
Burgoyne, who bore upon it with his cannon
from the top of Mount Defiance, a position
hitherto supposed to be inaccessible for any
such effective battery. Since the close of the
revolutionary war this fortress has been suffered
to go to decay. Lake George abounds with the
finest fish, such as the delicious salmon trout,
weighing from 5 to '20 pounds, the silver trout,
brook trout, pickerel, pike, and perch. In conse-
quence of the extraordinary purity of the waters
of this lake, the French formerly procured it for
sacramental uses, on which account it was by
them called Lac Sacremeut.

Giant of the Valley. Essex co., N. Y., one of the
high peaks of the Adirondack range.

Gibbet Island, N. Y. See Ellis Island.

Gibson, Fort, N. Y. See Ellis Island.

Gilbolo River, Ts. An E. branch of the San

Goat or Iris Island, N. Y., lies in the Niagara
River, at the Great Falls, dividing the waters into
two unequal parts. See
Niagara Falls.

Gogebic Lake, Mn. This sheet of water lies in
the W. part of the upper peninsula, and is the
source of the W. branch of Ontonagon River.

Goodwin Creek, S. C., a branch of the Great
Pedee, which it enters about half a mile below
Westfield Creek.

Goose Creek, Chatauque co., N. Y., rises in the
town of Harmony, and flows N. E. into Cha-
tauque Lake.

Goose Creek, Va., rises in the Blue Ridge, 5
miles S. W. of the Peaks of Otter, and after
course of 30 miles, enters Staunton River, in
Campbell co.

Goose Creek, On., flows N. N. W., and empties
into Lewis Fork, of Columbia River, a little
above Malade River.

Gooseberry River, Ma. It flows S. E., and
empties into Lake Superior.

Goose Neck Island, St. Lawrence co'., N. Y., lies in
St. Lawrence River, and is attached to the town
of Louisville.

Goose River, Ma. A W. branch of North Red

Goose Sound, Carteret co., N. C. Situated be-
tween Old Topsail and Bogue Inlets, separating
a long, narrow island from the main.

Gopher Creek, Io. A small stream entering the
Missouri, just below the mouth of Boyers River.

Governor's Island lies in N. Y. harbor, at the
junction of East and Hudson Rivers, and belongs
to the U. S. government. It is finely situated
for the defence of the city of N. Y., should an
enemy pass the fortifications at the Narrows. On
it are erected Fort Columbus, Castle Williams,
and the South Battery, commanding altogether
more than 200 pieces of armament. Fort Colum-
bus, in the centre of the island, is the most im-
portant. These fortifications, when fully garri-
soned, require 800 men.

Graham Lake, Ma. It lies N. W. from Oka-
bina Lake, with which it is connected by an outlet.

Grand Bayou, La. This stream rises in Bien-
ville parish, flows S. E., and uniting with Black
Lake Creek, enters Black Lake.

Grand Calliou, Bayou, Terre Bonne parish, La.,
flows in a S. W. direction, and enters the Gulf
of Mexico, S. from Lake Calliou.

Grand Island, Erie co., N. Y., lies in the Niag-
ara River, and is comprised in the town of Tona-
wanda. It commences 6 miles below Buffalo, and
extends to within 3 miles of the falls, being 9
miles in length, and in one place 6 miles in width
The soil is very fertile, and well wooded with
white and black oak, beech, maple, ash, &c. The
navigation along its shores is good, and the sce-
nery exceedingly beautiful.

Grand Island, Schoolcraft co., Mn. A pretty
large island, lying in Lake Superior.

Grand Island, La. A large island lying in the
Gulf of Mexico, between Vermilion and Cote
Blanche Bays.

Grand Lake. This large body of water lies
partly in Washington co., Me., and partly in New
Brunswick, and is
90 miles N. E. from Bangor.

A Gazetteer of the United States of America by John Hayward.

Hartford, CT: Case, Tiffany and Company. 1853. Public domain image

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