Hayward’s United States Gazetteer (1853) page 586

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rafted down to the Bangor market. See
« Orono.

Stillwater, Ma. Situated on the W. side of St.
Croix River, at its entrance into the head of
Lake St. Croix, about 25 miles N. E. from St.
Paul, the present capital of the territory, and
about 20 miles E. by N. from the Falls of St.
Anthony. These distances are by the land route
direct. The trip by water, down the lake and up
the Mississippi, to these places, is considerably
longer, especially to the falls, but is the one
usually chosen, for the accommodations afforded
by the steamboats, which run regularly on this

Stillwater is a large and flourishing town, ad-
vantageously situated for trade. It has many
fine buildings, cottages, churches, stores, &e.
Travellers meet with fine accommodations at the
hotels in this place, and find themselves in the
midst of natural scenery the most beautiful.

Stillwater, N. Y., Saratoga co. Watered by
Anthony's Kill and other small branches of the
Hudson River, which bounds it on the E. Sur-
face level and undulating; soil sandy and clay
loam. In the N. part of this town is situated the
battle ground where General Burgoyne was de-
feated by General Gates, the American com-
mander, in 1777. Here also are Freeman's
Farm and Bemus's Heights, both famous battle
grounds, and the meadow where the British Gen-
eral Frazer was mortally wounded. 10 miles
E. from Ballston Spa, and 20 N. N. E. from

Stockbridge, Ms., Berkshire co. The surface is
exceedingly varied, from tall and majestic moun-
tains to deep and lovely valleys. The soil in the
valleys is rich, and produces great crops of grain
and hay, and the higher grounds afford the sweet-,
est pasturage. Its water power is large and very
extensive. Stockbridge Mountain lies at the W.,
and Monument Mountain at the S. part of the
town, and in the S. E. corner the Beartown
Mountains rise. On the height of the N. W. spur
of these mountains is a very narrow and deep
ravine, perhaps a quarter of a mile long, where
the rocks of every size and form are thrown to-
gether in the wildest confusion. This is called
the “ Ice Hole,'' from the fact that ice remains in
this chasm through the year. On the E. side of
the town, and wholly within its limits, is Rattle-
snake Mountain, about 2 miles in length. The
Housatonic passes through the town; its wind-
ings are many, and extensive meadows lie on its
borders. This receives Konkapot Brook from the

S., and Barnum's, Great Pond, and Mohawk
Brooks from the N. There are a number of
large and beautiful ponds in the town, which
serve to swell the Housatonic. Near the centre
of the town is a delightful village, situated on an
elevated plain, between the river and a mountain.
7 miles S. E. from the depot of the Western Rail-
road at West Stockbridge, from which it is 11
miles to Pittsfield, and 162 to Boston.

Stockbridge, N. Y., Madison co. Watered by
Oneida Creek. A somewhat hilly town, with
a fertile soil. 5 miles N. E. from Morrisville, and
97 N. of W. from Albany.

Stockbridge, Vt., Windsor co. White River
runs through the northerly part of this town, and
in its passage receives the Sweed River from the
W. The mill privileges at the Great Narrows in
White River are the best. The whole river is
here compressed into a channel but a few feet in

width. Steatite is found here. The settlement
was commenced in 1784 and 1785. From Mont-
pelier 36 milets S. by W., and 26 N. W. from

Stockholm, N. Y., St. Lawrence co. The St
Regis River and its branches water this town.

Surface hilly and rather stony; soil fertile mould,
based upon limestone. 18 miles N. E. from Can-
ton, and 227 N. N. W. from Albany.

Stockport, N. Y., Columbia co. Watered by
Kinderhook Creek, a branch of the Hudson Riv-
er, which bounds it on the W. 5 miles N. from
Hudson, and 25 S. from Albany.

Stockport, Pa., Wayne co. A village on the
right bank of Delaware River. 180 miles N.
from Philadelphia, and 40 E. from Montrose.

Stockton, Ca., c. h. San Joaquim co. The third
city in California, ranking next to San Francisco
and Sacramento. It is situated on the E. bank of
the San Joaquim River, somewhat more than
100 miles by water from San Francisco, from
which it lies due E. There is good navigation
to this place, at all times, for steamers and ves-
sels of 400 tons' burden. Stockton lies a little
S. of the Calaveros River, a tributary of the San
Joaquim, on an inlet, or, as it is called, a slough,
which, at a little distance from the San Joaquim,
divides into 3 branches. The city occupies the
peninsula between the two northern branches, ex-
tending also S. to the third branch. It was laid
out in 1849, by Mr. Weaver, who had emigrated
to California 7 years before, and had obtained
from the government a grant of 11 square
leagues, about 50,000 acres, on condition of ob-
taining settlers within a specified time. In April,

1849, the site of the city was occupied by a soli-
tary rancho in the midst of the marshes. The
sale of the lots produced $500,000, and by Sep-
tember, 1849, Stockton was a canvas city of
1000 inhabitants, with a fleet of merchant vessels
lying before it. Since that period the population
has greatly increased, and many substantial build-
ings have been erected. Its position is such as to
make it the capital of the southern mining dis-
trict, as Sacramento is of the northern.

The southern mines are situated among the
hills and mountains forming the western slope of
the Sierra Nevada, commencing some 20 miles
E. of Stockton, and extending thence E. to the
banks of the rivers.

The following account by Bayard Taylor of a
journey, in the autumn of 1849, to the Mokelumne
Diggings, N. E. from Stockton, will serve to give
an idea ot the mines. “ The sun was shining
hotly, the tent streets of Stockton glowing like a
brick kiln. The thermometer stood at 98°, and
the parched sandy soil burned through our very
boot soles. We therefore resolved to wait till
evening before starting. We started at four
o'clock, when a pleasant breeze had sprung up,
and rode over the level plain through beautiful
groves of oak. The trail was crossed by deep
dry arroyos, or watercourses, which in the rainy
season make the country almost impassable.

Now, however, the very beds of the Tule marshes    •

were beginning to dry up. The bed of the Ca-

varas River, which in the spring is 30 feet deep,

was perfectly dry, and the trees above its banks

made a roof which shut out the wind and sand,

but let in the sunlight.

“We encamped in the very bed of the river,
and heaping the loose ground for pillows enjoyed
a delightful sleep. Leaving soon after sunrise,

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