Hayward’s United States Gazetteer (1853) page 587

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we entered the hills. The country was dotted
with picturesque clumps of oak, and as the
ground became higher and more broken, with
pines of splendid growth. Now, however, the
ground was parched like a furnace, the vegetation
snapped like glass under the hoofs of our mules,
and the cracks and seams in the arid soil seemed
to give out an intense heat. In the glens, where
the little air stirring was cut off, the mercury rose
to 110°. Crossing several steep spurs, we reached
the top of the dividing ridge overlooking the
Mokelumne valley, and here one of the most
charming mountain landscapes in the world
opened to our view. Under our very feet, as it
seemed, flowed the river, and a little corner of
level bottom wedged between the bases of the
hills was clothed with the tents of the gold hunt-
ers, whom we could see burrowing along the
water. The mountains, range behind range,
spotted with timber, made a grand indistinct
background in the murky air. Coming down tlig
almost perpendicular side of the hill, near the
bottom, we came upon the Sonorian town, as it
was called, from the number of Mexican miners
encamped there. Our first move was for the
river bottom, where a number of Americans, So-
norians, Kanakas, and French were at work in
the hot sun. The bar, as it was called, was noth-
ing more nor less than a level space at the junc-
tion of the river with a dry arroyo or gulch,
which winds for about eight miles among the
hills. It was hard and rocky, with no loose sand,
except such as had lodged between the large
masses of stone, which must, of course, be thrown
aside to get at the gold. The whole space, con-
taining about four acres, appeared to have been
turned over with great labor, and all the holes,
slanting down between the broken strata of slate;
to have been explored to the bottom. The first
party we saw had just succeeded in cutting a new
channel for the shrunken waters of the Moke-
lumne, and were commencing operations on about
twenty yards of the river bed, which they had
laid bare. They were ten in number, and their
only implements were shovels, a rude cradle for
the top layer of earth, and flat wooden bowls for
washing out the sand. When I first saw the men
carrying heavy stones in the sun, standing nearly
waist deep in water, and grubbing with their hands
in the gravel and clay, there seemed to me little
virtue in resisting the temptation to gold digging ;
but when the shining particles were poured out
lavishly from a tin basin, I confess there was a
sudden itching in my fingers to seize the heaviest
crowbar and the biggest shovel.

“A company of thirty, somewhat farther down
the river, had made a much larger dam, after a
month's labor, and a hundred yards of the bed
were clear.

“ I slept soundly that night, and went down
early to the river, where I found the party of ten
bailing out the water which had leaked into the
river bed during the night. They were standing
in the run, and had two hours of hard work be-
fore they could begin to wash. Again the pros-
pect looked uninviting; but when I went to them
again towards noon, one of them was scraping up
the sand from the bed with his knife, and throw-
ing it into a basin, the bottom of which glittered
with gold. Every knifeful brought out a quanti-
ty of grains and scales, some of which were as
large as the finger nail. At last, a two-ounce
lump fell plump into the pan, and the diggers,
now in the best possible humor, went on with
their work with great alacrity. It is only by such
operations as these, through associated labor, that
great profits are to be made in those districts
which have been visited by the first eager horde of
gold hunters. The deposits most eagerly reached
are soon exhausted by the crowd, and the labor
required to carry on further work successfully
deters single individuals from attempting it.
Those who, retaining their health, return home
disappointed, say they have been humbugged
about the gold, when, in fact, they have hum-
bugged themselves about the
work. If any one
expects to dig treasures out of the earth in Cali-
fornia without severe labor, he is wofully mis-
taken. Of all classes of men, those who pave
streets and quarry limestone are best adapted for
gold diggers.''

Stockton, N. Y., Chautauque co. Bear Creek
and some other small streams water this town.
Surface undulating; soil well adapted to grass on
the uplands, and in the valleys to the growth of
grain. 7 miles E. from Maysville, and 323 S. of
W. from Albany.

Stoddard County, Mo., c. h. at Bloomfield, in
the S. E. corner, between the St. Francis and
White Water, contains large lakes, and is largely
subject to overflow.

Stoddard, N. H., Cheshire co., is situated on the
height of land between Merrimac and Connecti-
cut Rivers, It is mountainous, and very rocky.
The soil is better adapted to grazing than tillage.
The S. branch of Ashuelot River, and several other
streams, water this town. There are 14 ponds
here, some of which are of considerable magni-
tude. The first family was that of John Taggard,
whose privations and hardships were very great.
Their grain was procured at Peterboro', at the
distance of 20 miles, which was conveyed by him
on his back through the pathless wilderness. At
one time, they had nothing for six days on which
to subsist but the flesh of the horse. This town
was formerly called Limerick. It was incorporated
in 1774, when it received the name of Stoddard,
from Colonel Samson Stoddard, of Chelmsford, to
whom, with several others, it was granted. First
settlers, John Taggard, Reuben Walton, Alex-
ander Scott, James Mitchell, and others, in 1769.
14 miles N. N. E. from Keene,^and 45 W. S. W.
from Concord.

Stokes County, N. C., Germantown and Salem
shire towns. This county is bounded N. by Rock-
ingham and Guilford counties and Virginia, E.
by Car, S. by Rowan, and W. by Surry. The
sources of Dan and Yadkiu Rivers drain the

Stoneham, Me., Oxford co. Stoneham was in-
corporated in 1834. It lies westerly of Albany,
and comprises the grant to Fryeburg Academy.

Stoneham, Ms., Middlesex co., comprised the N.
part of Charlestown until its incorporation, in
1725. There is some good land in Stoneham, and
the soil is generally of a gravelly loam, but it is
too rough and stony for easy cultivation. Spot
Pond, a beautiful sheet of water, covering an area
of 233 acres, lies in this town. It is 143 feet
above sea level. 9 miles N. from Boston, and 2
E. from the Boston and Lowell Railroad, at Wo-

Stonington, Ct., New London co. This town is
situated at the eastern extremity of Long Island
Sound, at the S. E. corner of the state, and on the
line of Rhode Island. The land is rocky and un-

A Gazetteer of the United States of America by John Hayward.

Hartford, CT: Case, Tiffany and Company. 1853. Public domain

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