Hayward’s United States Gazetteer (1853) page 330

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of popular lectures, a library, reading room, &c.
It has fine buildings, and apparatus which has
cost about $10,000. The Young Men's Mercan-
tile Library Association has a valuable library
and reading rooms in the Cincinnati College
edifice, on Walnut Street. Although intended
for the particular benefit of young men, its ad-
vantages are open to every respectable citizen.
Besides this, there is an Apprentices' Library As-
sociation, which has a handsome collection of
books, in every department of literature and
science, appropriate to the objects of such an in-
stitution. All minors brought up to laborious
employments have, under certain regulations,
free access to this library, from which about 500
volumes are drawn out weekly. In 1831, a Col-
lege of Teachers was established, having for its
object the elevation of the qualifications of teach-
ers, and the advancement of the interests of
schools at the west, which holds an annual meet-
ing at Cincinnati in October. The charitable
institutions required by the wants of a large city
have been liberally furnished in Cincinnati.
Among these are the Orphan Asylum, in Elm
Street, a fine four story building, with ample
grounds; two Orphan Asylums of the Roman
Catholics, for the different sexes ; and the State
Commercial Hospital and Lunatic Asylum, in-
corporatedTn 1821, with accommodations for 250
patients. Among the most extensive establish-
ments of the city for business are the pork
houses, which are located on the Miami Canal.
Cincinnati is the greatest market in the Union for
this important article of supplies. The number of
hogs slaughtered here, during the season of pack-
ing, in the fall and winter of 1851-2, was 352,000.

Cincinnati, for a city of such recent origin,
possesses great facilities for communication with
the surrounding country, by canals, McAdamized
roads, and railroads. The Miami Canal con-
nects the city with the Wabash and Erie Canal,
at Defiance. The Whitewater Canal extends
into Indiana, and commands much of the trade
of its eastern section. The improvements upon
the Licking River, by dams and locks, have ren-
dered that stream navigable for steamboats of
150 tons, for a distance of more than 200 miles'
into Kentucky. Two railroads are now in op-
eration, which connect the city with Sandqsky
and with Cleveland, on Lake Erie. The inte-
rior and capital of Indiana is connected with the
Ohio River by a railroad at Madison, about 80
miles below Cincinnati. These are great and
useful works, upon the structure of which many
millions of dollars have been expended. The
trade of the country from the Ohio River to the
Lakes, north and south, and from the Scioto to
the Wabash Rivers, east and west, comes chiefly
to Cincinnati. The same is true of the trade of
Kentucky for a great distance each way upon
the Ohio. The manufactures of Cincinnati are
also extensive. The surplus water from the
canals furnishes no inconsiderable power, which
has'been thoroughly applied to use; and much
is added by the steam engine, which is available
here at a reasonable expense.
A steam engine
supplies a large part of the city with water, for
drinking and culinary uses. It is forced up from
the Ohio River, into reservoirs upon a hill 700
feet high; and thence it is carried by iron pipes
under the bed of Deer Creek, to the intersection
of Broadway and Third Street, where its dis-
tribution through the city commences. These
works were projected and carried on by individ-
ual enterprise until 1839, when they were pur-
chased by the city.

On the 28th of December, 1788, but a little
more than sixty years ago, the first company of
civilized men landed on the north bank of the
Ohio, opposite the mouth of Licking River, to
commence the settlement of a town. Their first
log cabin was built on a spot which is now on
Eront Street, a little east of Main • Street. In
January, 1789, they proceeded to lay off their
town, which was then covered with a dense for-
est; the lower bottom bearing huge sycamore
and sugar maple trees, and the upper, beech and
oak. The streets were run, and the corners
marked upon the trees. To their projected City
they gave the name of Losantiville, which w'as
afterwards changed to Cincinnati. In 1802, if
was incorporated, as a town, with a population
of less than 1000 inhabitants. Thus recent is
the origin, and thus rapid has been the growth,
of this beautiful city, which long since obtained
the name of “ the Queen City of the West."

Cincinnatus, N. Y., Cortland co. Surface hilly ;
soil fertile. 15 miles S. E. from Cortland, and
131 S. W. from Albany.

Circleville, O. See Appendix, No. 8.

Circleville, Ya., c. h. London co.

City Point, Va., Prince Georg-e co. A port of
entry on a point formed.by the junction of James
and Appomattox Rivers. 3-3 miles S. E. from
Richmond. Large ships come up to this place,
and it is connected with Petersburg by railroad.

Clackamas County, On., c. h. at Oregon city.
In the lower valley of the Willamette.

Claiborne, Aa., c. h. Monroe co. On the E.
side of Alabama River, at the head of schooner
navigation. 138 miles S. from Tuscaloosa.

Claiborne Parish, La., c. h. at Overton, shire
town. In the N. W. angle, bordering on Arkan-
sas. Watered by Red River and branches of the
Wachita, and byBistineau and Bodeau Lakes.
The soil on the borders of the streams is of good

Claiborne County, Mi., c. fa. at Port Gibson.
In the S. E. angle, bordering on the Mississippi.
Bayou Pierre waters this county. Surface some-
what uneven; soil, except on the margins of some
of the streams, of an indifferent quality.

Claiborne County, Te., c. h. Tazewell, shire
town. On the northern border. Bounded N. by
Ky. and Ya., E. by Hawkins co., S. by Granger,
and W. by Campbell co. Watered by Powell's
and Clinch Rivers, head branches of the Ten-
nessee. Surface mountainous.

Clappville, Ms., Worcester co. A manufac-
turing village at the head, of Quinnebaug River.
50 miles W. by S. from Boston, in the town of

Claremont, N. II., Sullivan eo. This beauti-
ful town is watered by Connecticut and Sugar
Rivers, besides numerous brooks and rivulets.
It is a fine undulating tract of territory, covered
with a rich gravelly loam. The hills are sloping
acclivities, crowned with elegant summits. The
intervales on the rivers are rich and luxuriant.
In this town are fine beds of iron ore and lime-
stone. It received its name from the country
seat of Lord Clive, an English general. The
beautiful location of Claremont, its immense
water power, and its facilities of transportation
by steam, render it a desirable location for man-
ufacturing. Some valuable minerals are found

A Gazetteer of the United States of America by John Hayward.

Hartford, CT: Case, Tiffany and Company. 1853. Public domain image

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