Hayward’s United States Gazetteer (1853) page 469

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one of Contoocook River water this town. The
best mill privileges are furnished by streams issu-
ing from ponds, of which there are 4, containing
1800 acres. First settlers, Breed Batchelder,
and Dr. Nathaniel Breed, in 1767. 40 miles
S. W. from Concord, and 8 N. E. from Keene.

Nelson, N. Y. Madison co. Chenango Creek
and the head branches of Chenango River water
this town, the surface of which is high and
slightly uneven, and the soil clay and calcareous
loam. 106 miles W. from Albany.

Nelson County, Ya.. c.h. at Livingston. Bound-
ed N. E. by Albemarle co., S. E. by James River,
separating it from Buckingham co., S. W. by
Amherst, and N. W. by Augusta co. Drained by
Rock, Rockfish, and Tyre Rivers. The Blue
Ridge lies on the N. W. border of this county.

Neosho, Mo., c. h. Newton co. 175 miles N. W.
from Jefferson City.

Neponset Village, Ms., in the town of Dorches-
ter, Norfolk co. See

Nescopeck, Pa., Luzerne co. Watered by the
Susquehanna River and its tributaries, Big and
Little Wapwallopen, and Nescopeck Creeks. Sur-
face uneven, and some of the bottom land on
the streams fertile. 98 miles N. E. from Har-

Neshoba County, Mi., c. h. at Philadelphia.
Bounded N. by Winston co., E. by Kemper, S.
by Newton, and W. by Leake co. Drained by
Pearl River and its head branches.

New Albany, la. City, and seat of justice of
Floyd co. 126 miles S. by E. from Indianapolis.
Situated on the N. bank of the Ohio River, about
2 miles below the foot of the falls in that river,
at Louisville. This is one of the largest places
in the state. It is laid out with entire regularity,
having 6 streets parallel with the river, nearly
E. and W., and eleven running back from the
river, intersecting them at right angles. It has
churches of the Presbyterian, Episcopal, Meth-
odist, Baptist, Campbellite Baptist, and Roman
Catholic denominations. There are a male and
a female seminary, a lyceum, and other excellent
provisions for the education of the young. A
donation of $5000 was made by the original pro-
prietors to constitute a fund for the support of
a public school. There are several ship yards
at New Albany, in which a number of steamboats
are built annually, and a large business is done
in various branches of manufacture. Population
in 1840, 4226; in 1850, 10,000.

New Albion, N. Y., Cattaraugus co. Well wa-
tered by branches of Cattaraugus Creek on the
N., and of the Alleghany River on the S. The
surface is high and rather uneven; the soil favor-
able to the growth of grass and grain. 11 miles
W. from Ellicottville, and 306
S. of W. from

Newark, N. J., city, port of entry, and seat of
justice for Essex co., is situated on the W.
side of the Passaic River,
3 miles from its en-
trance into Newark Bay, and
9 miles W. from
the city of New York. It stands on a fertile
plain, with a rising ground on the W., to which
the suburbs of the city extend. Population in
1830, 10,950; in 1840, 17,290; in 1850, 38,893.
This is the most populous and flourishing place
in the state of New Jersey. The city is regularly
laid out, with broad and straight streets, gener-
ally crossing each other at right angles. Many
«f the streets are bordered by lofty and beautiful
shade trees, which give an air of elegance and
comfort to the place. There are two large and
pleasant public squares, in the heart of the city,
which are in like manner adorned with majestic
elms. Broad Street, running through the middle
of the city from N. to S., is one of the most ex-
tensive and beautiful avenues to be met with in
any of our populous towns. Newark is well
built, having several handsome churches, and
other public edifices. The court house, situ-
uated upon a commanding site, in the W. part
of the city, is a large and elegant building, of
brown freestone, in the Egyptian style of archi-
tecture. Some of the church edifices are of stone;
among which are the First Presbyterian Church,
on Broad Street, and the Episcopal Church, on
the lower green, or Park, as it is now called. The
dwelling houses which front upon this beautiful
public parade are among the handsomest in the
city. The elevated ground on the W. affords
some of the finest situations for gentlemen's
seats, many of which are occupied with elegant
buildings, and surrounded with the evidences of
luxury and taste.

Among the literary institutions in Newark are
the Mechanics' Association for Literary and Sci-
entific Improvement, which has a library and
philosophical apparatus; the Mercantile and Lit-
erary Association, which sustains a course of
public lectures; the Newark Library Association,
which has accumulated a library of
3000 vol-
umes, open to the public on the most liberal
terms; and the New Jersey Historical Society.
The Newark Academy was established in
and was distinguished, for many years, as one
of the largest and most prominent institutions
of the kind in the country. Previous to this
date, there had been an academy at Newark,
whose building, — a stone building, two stories
high,—then standing upon the upper green,
was burned by a party of
500 British soldiers from
New York, on the night of January
25, 1780.

Newark is very extensively engaged in manu-
factures, a great part of the products of which are
sent to distant markets. Although there are no
peculiar natural facilities here for this kind of
industry, this want has been abundantly supplied
by steam power and other artificial agents, un-
der the direction of human skill and enterprise.
About the year
1676, measures were taken to
invite mechanics to this place. The first shoe-
maker appears to have been induced to come
into the settlement from Elizabethtown, having
been “ formally admitted a member of the com-
munity, on condition of his supplying it with
shoes.'' The manufacture of shoes, boots, sad-
dles, harness, and the various fabrics of leather,
have constituted an extensive branch of the busi-
ness of Newark in modern times. The tanneries
here have been very extensive, the first of which
was established as long ago as
1698. Othei
manufactures, in great variety and abundance
have been produced, the most important of which
are hats and caps, carriages, omnibuses, and
wagons, cutlery, and jewelry. The number of
persons and the amount of capital employed in
these large manufacturing operations is such as
to constitute this the leading interest of the place
although, by its position at the head of ship
navigation from the Atlantic, its facilities foi
commerce, and its investments in that line, hav«
been by no means inconsiderable. The coasting
trade employs from
60 to 80 vessels of 100 tons
1833, a whaling company was incorporated

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