Hayward’s United States Gazetteer (1853) page 471

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finds its way to the various markets of the coun-
try ; and from the spermaceti, an article exclu-
sively the product of the sperm whale, is manu-
factured the spermaceti candle, so universally ad-
mired for its beauty, and esteemed for its pleasant
light. There are upwards of 20 oil and candle
manufactories now in operation in the town. A
large proportion of the right whale oil is exported
to the north of Europe.

Quite a number of ships were lately withdrawn
from the whaling business for the California
trade. They were generally of the older class,
soon tc be replaced bv others.

As a necessary appendage to the fisheries, the
coopering business is extensively carried on.

Ship building and ship repairing employ many
of the mechanics of the town. No better ships
float the ocean than some of those which have
been launched from the ship yards of New Bed-

The New Bedford Railway and Wharf Com-
pany have a capital of $50,000, and on a small
island, owned by the company, they have a marine
railway, which affords great facilities for cleaning
and repairing the smaller class of vessels.

There is an extensive steam cordage factory,
the machinery of which is moved by 2 engines
of 20 horse power each, and turning out annually
400 tons of cordage. There is also in operation
a manufactory of Prussian blue.

An immense building has lately been erected
for manufacturing and mechanical purposes.
The power is steam. Apparatus for grinding
grain, working iron, and planing and sawing, is
in operation here.

Another planing mill, a large blacksmith shop,
a block manufactory, a foundery, a coppersmith
establishment, a frame factory, and 1 or 2 other
mechanics' establishments, have steam engines
connected with them.

The harbor of New Bedford is safe and capa-
cious, though not very easy of access. It has 3
to 4 fathoms of water. A wooden bridge and
causeway, three fourths of a mile in length, con-
nect this town with Fair Haven.

New Bedford is connected by railroads with
Boston, Providence, and Fall River. A steam-
boat plies regularly between this place and Nan-
tucket, touching at Wood's Hole in Falmouth,
and Holmes Hole on Martha's Vineyard. The
distance to Nantucket is the same as to Boston,
55 miles. The whale fishery has proved very
lucrative, and New Bedford is thought to be one
of the richest cities in proportion to the number
of its inhabitants any -where to be found.

New Berlin, N. Y., Chenango co. Watered S.
and E. by the Unadilla River. Surface undu-
lating ; soil moist clay loam of good quality. 8
miles N. E. from Norwich, and 100 W. from

New Berlin, Pa., c. h. Union co. On the N.
side of Penn's Creek. 69 miles N. from Harris-

Newbern, N. C-, c. h. Craven co. This is a
port of entry, on the S. W. bank of Neuse Riv-
er, at its junction with the Trent. It was for-
merly the capital of the state. It is a pleasant
and healthy town, and a place of considerable
trade. 120 miles E. S. E. from Raleigh.

Newberry District, S. C., c. h. at Newberry Court
House. Bounded N. by Union district, E. by
Fairfield and Lexington, S. by Edgefield, and
W. and N. W. by Laurens district. Watered on
E. and S. borders by Broad and Saluda Rivers,
and drained by their branches; soil fertile in
many portions.

New Bloomfield, c. h. Perry co. 34 miles W. by
N. from Harrisburg.

New Boston, N; H., Hillsboro' co. Several
streams water this town; the largest is the S.
branch of Piscataquog River. This town con-
sists of fertile hills, productive vales, and some
valuable meadows. The soil is fertile. In the
S. part is a considerable elevation, called Jo.
English Hill, one side of which is nearly perpen-
dicular. Its height is 572 feet. Beard's and Jo.
English Ponds are the only ones of note. From
Amherst 9 mjles N. N. W.

New Braintree, Ms., Worcester co. 6000
acres of this township were granted to people in
ancient Braintree, for services rendered to the
public in 1670 ; the residue of the township was
taken from Brookfield and Hardwick. It was
called “Braintree Farms,'' until its incorporation,
in 1751. The surface is uneven, and the soil gen-
erally good. The town is celebrated for good
farmers, and the abundance of excellent beef,
butter, and cheese produced. The township is
finely watered by brooks, rivulets, and springs.
Ware River passes its western border. In the
W. part of the town is Wenimesset Brook, formed
entirely by springs from the adjacent hills. On
this brook is an extensive and luxuriant meadow
of several hundred acres, called Wenimesset,
the name given it by the Indians when a hideous
swamp. 18 miles W. N. W. from Worcester,
and 62 W. from Boston.

New Brighton, N. Y., Richmond co. On the
N. end of Staten Island, 6 miles from New York
city. It is much resorted to during the summer.
Staten Island.

New Brighton, Pa., Beaver co. A flourishing
place on the E. bank of Beaver River, 3 miles
above its junction with the Ohio. Here is a good
water power, and active manufacturing opera-
tions are carried on. The Pennsylvania and Ohio
Canal passes through it.

New Britain, Ct., Hartford co. A flourishing
village in the town of Berlin. 10 miles
W. by
S. from Hartford. This place is distinguished
for the intelligent enterprise of its inhabitants,
who, without water privileges of any amount, or
any other peculiar advantages of natural situation,
have established and prosperously carried on a
greater variety of manufactures than almost any
other town in New England. Commencing on
a small scale at first, they have rapidly enlarged
their operations as the demands of the market
have called for and rewarded their exertions.
There are now several large establishments where
steam power is employed, besides a great amount
of labor in shops where little or no assistance
from machinery is required.
A numerous list of
articles in brass, tin ware, plated ware, buttons,
hooks and eyes, jewelry, &c., is the produce of
this well-directed industry; in which a large
amount of capital and a multitude of laborers
are constantly employed.

There are two large Congregational churches
in New Britain, which have handsome houses of
worship, and one each of the Baptist and Meth-
odist denominations. The village is pleasantly
situated, and has all those marks of thrift, wealth,
and good taste which would be indicated by the
facts already mentioned. The Hartford and Fish-
kill Railroad passes through this place. The

A Gazetteer of the United States of America by John Hayward

Hartford, CT: Case, Tiffany and Company. 1853. Public domaii

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