Hayward’s United States Gazetteer (1853) page 578

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stitution, beautifully located, and possessing
every advantage for a female boarding school.

About half a mile S. of the village is located
the Mount Pleasant State Prison, better known,
perhaps, as the Sing Sing State Prison, which
occupies 130 acres of ground. The buildings
are in the form of a hollow square, enclosing a
yard 500 feet by 250. The main prison is 484
feet in length and 44 in width, fronting westerly
on the Hudson, being five stories high, and con-
taining 1000 cells for prisoners. In the front
and rear are the workshops, together with the
keeper's house; and on the S., attached to the
building, are a chapel, hospital, kitchen, and
storehouses. These buildings, as well as the
principal edifice, are all of rough dressed marble,
quarried on the state farm. The prison for
female convicts, a more recent structure, stands
separate from that of the men, on an elevated
site, and is a handsome marble building, of the
Ionic order. These premises can be distinctly
traced from the boats, in passing up and down
the river. The average number of convicts at
Sing Sing, in the year 1850, was 721, of whom 80
were females.

Sing Sing.is celebrated for its marble quarries,
which are worked, to a great extent, by the state
prison convicts. The marble obtained here is of
an excellent quality. The village derives its
name, we are told, from the Indian words
signifying a place of stone.

The Croton Aqueduct Bridge at this place, over
the Sing Sing Creek, constructed of stone ma-
sonry, in a single arch of 88 feet span, and rising
about 100 feet from the creek, is an object of
much curiosity, for its massive strength and ex-
cellent workmanship.

Skaneateles, N. Y., Onondaga co. Watered by
Skaneateles Lake, the larger part of which lies in
this town, and by its outlet. Surface undulating ;
soil very fertile. 16 miles S. W. from Syracuse,
and 146 W. from Albany.

Skowhegan, Me., Somerset co. On the N. side
of Kennebec River, at Skowhegan Falls, which
afford a great water power. 5 miles below Nor-
ridgewock, and 33 N. from Augusta.

Slatersville, R. I., town of Smithfield, Provi-
dence co. A factory village, on a branch of Paw-
tucket River. 19 miles N. W. from Providence.

Smith County, Mi., c. h. at Raleigh. Bounded
N. by Scott, E. by Jasper, S. by Jones and Co-
vington, and W. by Simpson and Rankin coun-
ties. Drained by the head branches of Leaf River.

Smith County, Te., c. h. at Carthage. Ken-
tucky is on the N., Jackson co. E., White and
Warren S. E., Wilson S. W., and Summer W.
At Carthage, Caney Fork River joins the Cum-
berland. Surface rather rolling than, hilly; soil
generally productive.

Smithfield, N. Y., Madison co. Watered by
Canaseraga and Cowasalon Creeks. A hilly
town, with a very fertile soil. 5 miles N. from
Morrisville, and 106 N. W. from Albany.

Smithfield, N. C., c.h. Johnson co. On theE. side
of Neuse River. 27 miles S. E. from Raleigh.

Smithfield. R. I., Providence co. This is a large
town, containing a great variety of surface and soil.

Smithfield has generally an undulating surface,
presenting an agreeable diversity of moderate
eminences and gentle declivities; but in some
sections it is considerably rough and broken.

The manufacture of lime is an important and

extensive business, and affords employment to a
great number of persons. There is also a quarry
of white stone at what is called Woonsocket Hill,
that sustains heat remarkably well, which renders
it very valuable for furnace hearths. About two
miles distant from this, there is a quarry, contain-
ing excellent whetstones, for edge tools.

The soil is a gravelly and sandy loam, with some
sections of a calcareous loam. It is generally
rich and fertile, although in some places it has
been reduced by an exhausting system of culti-
vation. There are, however, some low and
marshy tracts, which are generally appropriated
to mowing, and afford good crops of grass. The
agricultural productions consist of the various ar-
ticles common to the climate.

The waters of the town consist of the Black-
stone, which washes its north-eastern border, and
a branch of this river, nearly of equal size, which
intersects the town, discharging its waters into
the former, in the northern section of the town.
After the union of these streams, the Blackstone
is from 100 to 200 feet in width. At some
seasons of the year, it overflows its banks, and
has been known to rise from 15 to 20 feet above
its usual height. Besides these, there are numer-
ous small streams, some of which afford valuable
sites for mills. In the S. part of the town, within
about 4 miles from Providence, there is a consid-
erable body of water, called Scots Pond. It is
nearly a mile in length, about half a mile in
width, and of great depth. What is remarkable
in this pond is the steep descent of its shores.
Cases have occurred of persons being drowned
in attempting to water their horses at this

There is a remarkable fall of water upon the
Blackstone River, called Woonsocket Falls,
which is considered as quite a curiosity. The
fall is about 20 feet, not perpendicular, but over
a precipice of rocks for some distance. The fall
of the water upon these, rock?, through a succession
of ages, has occasioned numerous excavations, all
of which are smooth and circular, and some of
them very large, being sufficient to contain sev-
eral hogsheads.

The beautiful village of Woonsocket is situated
at these falls, on the line of Cumberland; the
river dividing the towns and the village into
nearly equal parts. This village is a beautiful
place. 11 miles from Providence by the railroad
from Worcester to Providence.

Slatersville is another beautiful village in this
town, on Branch River, about 2 miles W. from

Smithfield is a large manufacturing town, con-
taining many other pleasant villages, almost ex-
clusively devoted to manufacturing objects.

Smithfield, Ya., c. h. Isle of Wight co. On a
branch of James River. 15 miles above Hamp-
ton, and 65 S. E. from Richmond.

Smithport, Pa., c. h. McKean co. 196 miles
N. W. from Harrisburg.

Smithtown, N. Y., Suffolk co. Washed on the
S. by Long Island Sound, and drained by Nes-
aquake River. Surface chiefly level; soil sandy
loam. 28 miles W. from Riverhead, and 197
S. E. from Albany.

Smithville, N. Y., Chenango co. Watered by
Geneganslette and some other small branches of
Chenango River. Surface undulating; soil sandy
loam. 15 miles S. W. from Norwich, and 131
S. of W. from Albany.

A Gazetteer of the United States of America by John Hayward.

Hartford, CT: Case, Tiffany and Company. 1853. Public domain

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