Hayward’s United States Gazetteer (1853) page 648

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ton, and has long been the resort of invalids and
parties of pleasure. There is a good hotel for
the accommodation of visitors. There is, near
this place, an abrupt and singularly-shaped prom-
ontory, extending into the sea, and dividing the
beaches, which had otherwise been continuous,
on either side, called Great Boar's Head. The
fishing is very good here a little distance from
the shore.


This spot, so celebrated for its wild and majes-
tic scenery, is in Jefferson co., at the confluence
of Shenandoah and Potomac Rivers, where, after
the union of their waters, they find a passage
through the rocky barrier of the Blue Ridge,
1200 feet in height. Mr. Jefferson, in his “ Notes
on Virginia,'' has given a full and graphic ac-
count of the scene which is here presented, which
he characterizes as “ one of the most stupendous
in nature.'' “ Jefferson's Rock,'' the spot where
it is said Mr. Jefferson wrote his description, is a
pile of huge, detached rocks, leaning over the
precipitous cliffs of the Shenandoah, and looking
into the mountain gorge of the Potomac. Its top
is 12 feet square, and almost level; whilst its
base does not exceed 5 feet in width, resting
upon a larger mass of rock, jutting out from the
hill. Mr. Jefferson pronounces the scenery at
this place as “ worth a trip across the ocean to

There is also a most enchanting prospect ob-
tained from the summit of a mountain opposite,
about a mile and a half farther up, on the Mary-
land side of the river. The eye here reaches a
very wide extent of country, fields, woodlands,
and plantations; while the Shenandoah, as it is
traceable upon the magic picture, appears like a
series of beautiful lakes.

A bridge, 750 feet long, crosses the Potomac at
Harper's Ferry. The U. S. have located an
armory and an arsenal at this place, which are
well worthy the attention of the tourist. Nearly
9000 stand of arms are annually manufactured
here, employing about 240 hands. The hotels at
this place afford excellent accommodations for

The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad here finds a
passage through the Blue Ridge, in its route be-
tween Baltimore and Cumberland. The distance
from Baltimore is 82 miles, and from Cumber-
land 96 miles. The Winchester Railroad also
connects this point with Winchester, Va., 32
miles distant;


This celebrated watering-place is situated in a
town of the same name, near the geographical
centre of the state, a few miles S.
W. of the Ken-
tucky River. The springs are 6 or 8 in number,
bursting out near the summit of the limestone
ridge on which the village of Harrodsburg is

The Epsom Spring issues in the most copious
stream, has a feebler sulphurous smell, and a
lower temperature than the others, and therefore
is the one chiefly used. This spring contains the
following ingredients : Carbonate of magnesia,
sulphate of soda, sulphate of lime, carbonate of
lime, and sulphuretted hydrogen. Temperature
60 degrees. There is, as this analysis shows, a
striking analogy between the constitution of the


Epsom Spring and that of the Seidlitz Spring of
Bohemia; which was examined, and its powers
warmly extolled by the celebrated Hoffman, in
1721, and has maintained its reputation unabated
for more than a century.

The Chalybeate Spring is the same in constitu-
tion with the above, with the addition of iron,
and a stronger impregnation of sulphuretted hy-
drogen. Temperature 65°.

From their composition, the sanative effects of
these waters will be easily inferred. They are
gently purgative, diaphoretic, and diuretic. They
diminish arterial action, promote various secre-
tions, and exert an alterative influence upon the
system. Hence they are clearly beneficial in all
diseases attended by inflammation: in obstruc-
tions of the viscera; dysentery; chronic rheuma-
tism, and gout in its earlier stages ; in cutaneous
diseases; and in complaints of the chest following
colds, measles, or scarlatina, or dependent upon
inflammation of the bronchia.

For those from the S. and W. in search of
health or recreation, this watering-place affords
a delightful retreat in the summer months ; and
the number who resort to it is every year increas-
ing. There have been some $300,000 expended
upon the premises ; and there is, perhaps, no es-
tablishment of the kind in the United States,
owned by an individual proprietor, which sur-
passes this in the means afforded for making a
residence there desirable.

In the neighborhood of the springs are the
Gray Mural Cliffs of the Kentucky River, which
are visited as a great natural curiosity. Here the
river flows, in a narrow and winding ravine,
nearly 400 feet deep ; and offers, in its high and
precipitous banks, embellished with evergreens,
much to interest those who have a taste for the
sublime and beautiful in natural scenery.

The distance of these springs from Louisville,
on the Ohio River, via Shelbyville, Frankfort, and
Lawrenceburg, is about 120 miles.


This delightful place of recreation for the citi-
zens of New York lies on the opposite bank of
the Hudson, immediately N. of Jersey City.
During the warm summer months, the steam
ferry boats running back and forth between Ho-
boken and New York are continually crowded
with persons seeking refreshment in this charm-
ing retreat from the heated and thronged streets
of the city.


These mineral springs have become somewhat
celebrated. They contain carbonic acid, carbon-
ate of lime, and iron. They are three in number,
each differing in its properties from the others.
They are situated near White Hall Pond, which
abounds in fish of various kinds. At this place,
a large and commodious hotel has been kept for
many years, and has become a favorite resort for
persons in pursuit of health or pleasure, where
ample provision is made for all their want3. The
Boston and Worcester Railroad passes within
three and a half miles of the springs, at West-
borough, 32 miles W. from Boston.


This place, situated a few miles N. of the
Washita River, and about 50 miles from Little

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