454 NIAGARA COUNTY.
the river bank in the s. w. part of the town.1 The site of the village of Lewiston was occupied by
the French at different times previous to and during the Old French War; but the first permanent
settlements were made about the year 1800.2 The first church is said to have been founded by
Brant, at the Mohawk settlement, a little e. of Lewiston.3 There are now 8 churches in town.4
LOCKPORT—was taken from Cambria and Royalton, Feb. 2, 1824. It extends from the
central part to the southern bounds of the co. The surface in the northern part of the town,
through which the mountain ridge extends, is broken and hilly; in the central and southern parts
it is level. Eighteen Mile and Mud Creeks are the principal streams. The soil is a clayey loam
intermixed with marl, and in the n. it is stony. The Niagara limestone crops out along the
mountain ridge, and extensive quarries have been opened in and near the village of Lockport.5
Underlying this is a stratum of hydraulic limestone, from which waterlime is made; and sand¬
stone belonging to the Medina formation is also quarried n. of the ridge.6 The manufactures of
the town are extensive, and consist principally of flour, lumber, leather, and machinery. iLock-
port,7 (p.v., ) the co. seat, was incorp. March 26, 1829. It is situated on the Erie Canal and the
declivities of the mountain ridge. It is an important station on the Niagara Falls R. R., and is the
terminus of the branch road to Buffalo. The water-power created by the canal locks at this place
aas given rise to numerous and extensive manufacturing establishments.8 The village contains
15 churches, a high school,9 3 newspaper offices, 3 banks of issue, and 1 savings bank. Pop. 8,939.
Wrigkts Corners, (p.o.,) in the n. part of the town, and Rapids, (p.o.,) in the s. part,
are hamlets. Hickory Corners, in the w., is a p. o. The first settlement was made at Cold
Spring, about 1 mi. e. of Lockport Village, by Charles Wilbur, in 1805.10 There are 21 churches
in town.11 Ex-Gov. Washington Hunt is a resident of this town.
JiEWFAlSE—was formed from Hartland, Somerset, and Wilson, March 20,1824. It extends
from near the center of the co. to the lake shore. The surface is level. Eighteen Mile Creek
crosses the town, dividing it into two unequal portions. The soil is generally a sandy loam; but
in some parts it is clayey. Olcott, (p.v.,) on the lake shore, at the mouth of Eighteen Mila
Creek, contains 3 churches and about 30 dwellings. Ckarlotte, (Newfane p.o.,) on Eighteen
Mile Creek, near the center of the town, contains 2 churches and about 25 dwellings. Hess
Road, in the e., and Coomer, in the w. part, are p. offices. The first settlement was made in
1807, by Wm. Chambers12 and John Brewer, from Canada.13 The first religious services were con¬
ducted in 1811, by a colored Methodist minister from Canada. There are 5 churches in town.14
NIAGARA—was formed from Cambria, June 1,1812, as “ Schlosserits name was changed
Feb. 14, 1816. Pendleton was taken off in 1827, and Wheatfield in 1836. It is the s. w. corner
town of the co., occupying the angle made by the abrupt northerly bend of Niagara River. Its
factory, 1 planing mill, 2 tanneries, a woolen factory, 2 machine
shops and founderies, a plow factory, a distillery, and a plaster-
mill. A hydraulic canal three-fourths of a mi. long has been
constructed upon the declivity of the ridge, from which the water
is distributed to various manufactories. The water is taken from
the upper level of the canal and returned to the lower. A con
siderable proportion of the water-power is obtained from the
water taken from the lower level.
9 The “ Lockport Union School” was incorp. March 31, 1847.
Connected with it is an academic department, under the super¬
vision of the regents. The number of pupils in attendance in
1866 -was 742.
1° Jedediah Darling settled in the town in 1808, Gregory
in 1809, Thomas Miles, Silliman Wakeman, David Carlton, and
Geo. Miller in 1810, and Alex. Freeman and John Dye in 1811.
The first inn was opened by Chas. Wilbur, in 1800; the first
sawmill was built by Alex. Freeman, in 1811, and the first grist¬
mill by Otis Hathaway, on Eighteen Mile Creek. This was a
small mill, which was built in 20 days. L. A. Spaulding was
then building, and soon after finished, a stone mill of 7 stories
in height. Simeon Ford erected a woolen factory in 1828. The
first school was taught by Olinda Moore, in the summer of 1816.
11 Bap., Cong., Friends, Luth., 2 M. B., 2 Presb., 2 Prot. E., 2 R. O.,
Univ., and 2 Af. Meth. at Lockport Village, and Dutch Evang.,
Dutch Ref., Luth., 2 M. E., and Wes. Meth. in other parts of the
12 Chambers removed to Grand Island; and about the year
1825, attempting to cross Niagara River above the cataract
in a skiff, he was drawn into the rapids and carried over the
is Cotton settled in the town the same year, Burgoyne,
Kemp, and Peter Hopkins in 1808, and Wm. and James Wisner
in 1810. Levi Ellis built the first saw and grist mill, in 1811,
for James Van Horn. Asa Douglas opened a store at Olcott, in
1812. The first school was taught by Bezaleal Smith, in 1815.
1* 2 M. E., Bap., Univ., and Wes. Meth.
This Seminary is under the charge of the “ Priests of the
Congregation of the Missionof St. Vincent de Paul Institution,”
and is designed to educate boys and young men for the priest¬
hood. It was incorp. in 1868. The buildings are not yet completed.
Among the settlers who were in the town in 1800 were Jos.
and John Howell, Middaugh, Henry Hough, Henry Mills,
McBride, Thos. Hustler, Wm. Gambol, and Fred’k Wood¬
man. Geo. Howell was the first child bom in the town and in
the co., in 1799. Middaugh kept tavern in 1788, and McBride
built a tannery about 1799. The first sawmill was built by Jos.
Howell, in 1808, and the first gristmill by John Gray, in 1815.
The Tuscarora Reservation is in this town.
This was probably some time during the Revolutionary War.
Brant was an Episcopalian; and the services were usually con¬
ducted by some one attached to the British garrison at Ft. Nia¬
gara. The church was built of logs and had no belfry. The
bell was hung upon a cross-bar resting in the crotch of a tree
Presb., Prot. E., Univ., and R. C. at Lewiston, Cong, and
M. E. at Pekin, M. E. at Dickersonville, and Indian church on
8 The principal of these quarries are along the canal, in the s.
part of Lockport Village. There are also quarries about a mile
E. of the village, and others a little further w. This limestone is a
very excellent building material, and large quantities areshipped
to distant places. The locks at this place, and numerous culverts
on the canal, are built of it. A cave of small extent exists
under the village of Lockport.
The principal quarries from which sandstone is obtained are
at Rattlesnake Hill, N. w. of the village. This stone is used
principally for flagging* and paving.
t So named from there being a greater number of locks here
than at any other place on the canal; and to these the village
owes its origin.
Five flouring mills, with an aggregate of 30 run of stone, 7
flawmills, 5 stave and shingle factories, 1 sash, door, and blind